Computer Network Notes PDF Free Download | CN Study Materials, Reference Books & Syllabus

Computer Network Notes

Computer Network Notes: Aspirants looking for Computer Network Study Material can get the best notes to have a revision of concepts. Avail the CN Notes as per the latest syllabus. It acts as a premier study material during your preparation to score better grades in the exam. Apart from the regular notes, you will also get the Important Questions List, Syllabus, and Reference Books for Computer Network.

Candidates can avail the Computer Network PDF Download for free from our site. We don’t charge any money from you and all you have to do is just tap on the links here to download the Computer Network Study Material. Ace up your preparation with the best study resources and score well in the exams.

About Computer Network

A Computer Network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways to exchange data. Each device on the network is treated as a node and each node has a unique address. Addresses are numeric quantities that are easy for computers but not for humans. However, some networks even provide names that humans can remember easily instead of numbers.

B.Tech Computer Network Notes PDF Free Download

Aspirants pursuing the B.Tech can make use of the Computer Network Study Material & Notes prevailing here. Aid your preparation with the ultimate preparation tools and score more marks. You can download the study material by visiting our page whenever you want to prepare. Use them as a reference and get to know the concepts better to score better grades and stand out from the crowd.

Computer Networks Notes for CSE  PDF Download
Computer Networks  Handwritten Notes Download
Computer Networks Notes for CSE 5th Sem Download
Computer Networks Notes PDF Download
Computer Networks Notes PDF for ECE PPT Download
Computer Networks Question Paper PDF Download

Computer Network Reference Books List

Avail the Best Books for Computer Network suggested by subject experts. Refer to the Computer Network Books & Study Material over here during your preparation. Pick a book from the following and choose a book that suits your knowledge and prepare accordingly. All the topics of computer networks are given in a detailed way and in simple language. Make the most out of these books suggested by experts and top in the exams.

  • Tanenbaum and David J Wetherall, Computer Networks, 5th Edition, Pearson Edu, 2010
  • Computer Networks: A Top-Down Approach, Behrouz A. Forouzan, FirouzMosharraf, McGraw Hill Education
  • Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks – A Systems Approach” (5th ed), Morgan Kaufmann/ Elsevier, 2011
  • Data Communications and Networking, Behrouz A. Forouzan, TMH
  • Data and Computer Communications, William Stallings, PHI
  • Computer Networks, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, PHI Version 2 CSE IIT, Kharagpur
  • Wireless Communications; Principles and Practice, Theodore E. Rappaport, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education
  • Satellite Communications, Timothy Pratt, Charles Bostian, and Jeremy Allnutt, 2nd Edition, Wiley
  • Internetworking with TCP/IP; Principles, Protocols, and Architecture, Douglas E. Commer, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall of India
  • Data Compression; The Complete Reference, David Solomon, 3rd Edition, Springer
  • Network Security; Private Communication in a Public World, CharlieKaufman, Radia Perlmon and Mike Speciner, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India

Also, Check: Software Testing Methodologies Books

Computer Network Syllabus

Make your preparation effective with a prior idea on the Computer Network Syllabus. Keeping in mind the requirements of Students pursuing B.Tech and having Computer Network Subject we have provided an elaborate view of Syllabus. Get to know the detailed Computer Network Exam Syllabus Unitwise and have a clear idea of what to study. Go through the topics under each unit carefully and allot time to each topic. Try covering all the topics before attempting the exam itself so that it becomes easy for you during the time of the exam. Having awareness of the CN Syllabus is necessary as it prevents you from wasting time on unnecessary topics.

Unit – I

Introduction: Network Topologies WAN, LAN, MAN. Reference models, The OSI Reference Model, the TCP/IP Reference Model, A Comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models

Unit – II

Physical Layer, Fourier Analysis, Bandwidth Limited Signals, The Maximum Data Rate of a Channel, Guided Transmission Media, Digital Modulation and Multiplexing: Frequency Division Multiplexing, Time Division Multiplexing, Code Division Multiplexing Data Link Layer Design Issues, Error Detection and Correction, Elementary Data Link Protocols, Sliding Window Protocols

Unit – III

The Data Link Layer, Services Provided to the Network Layer, Framing, Error Control, Flow Control, Error Detection, and Correction, Error-Correcting Codes, Error Detecting Codes, Elementary Data Link Protocols- A Utopian Simplex Protocol, A Simplex Stop and Wait Protocol for an Error-free channel, A Simplex Stop and Wait Protocol for a Noisy Channel, Sliding Window Protocols-A One Bit Sliding Window Protocol, A Protocol Using Go-Back-N- A Protocol Using Selective Repeat

Unit – IV

The Medium Access Control Sublayer, The Channel Allocation Problem-Static Channel Allocation-Assumptions for Dynamic Channel Allocation, Multiple Access Protocols, Aloha, Carrier Sense Multiple Access Protocols, Collision, Free Protocols, Limited Contention Protocols, Wireless LAN Protocols, Ethernet-Classic Ethernet Physical Layer, Classic Ethernet MAC Sublayer Protocol, Ethernet Performance, Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet-10-Gigabit Ethernet- Retrospective on Ethernet, Wireless Lans, The 802.11 Architecture and Protocol Stack, The 802.11 Physical Layer, The 802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol, The 805.11 Frame Structure Services

Unit – V

Design Issues, The Network Layer Design Issues, Store and Forward Packet Switching, Services Provided to the Transport layer- Implementation of Connectionless Service, Implementation of Connection-Oriented Service, Comparison of Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks, Routing Algorithms, The Optimality principle, Shortest path Algorithm, Congestion Control Algorithms- Approaches to Congestion Control, Traffic, Aware Routing, Admission Control, Traffic Throttling, Load Shedding.

Unit – VI

Transport Layer, The Internet Transport Protocols: UDP, the Internet Transport Protocols, TCP Application Layer, The Domain Name System: The DNS Name Space, Resource Records, Name Servers, Electronic Mail: Architecture and Services, The User-Agent, Message Formats, Message Transfer, Final Delivery

List of Computer Network Important Questions

Candidates pursuing B.Tech can go through the list of important questions for Computer Network. Go through all of these review questions without fail so that you can excel in the examination. They are along the lines

  • Compare the WAN, LAN, and MAN topologies.
  • Define Encapsulation and Peer to Peer communication in the layered architecture.
  • With a neat sketch explain the Packet switching technique in detail.
  • Give a brief explanation about copper cables with neat sketch.
  • Describe the stop and wait for a protocol with a neat sketch.
  • Explain the Distance Vector routing algorithm with an example.
  • What are the differences between the Static Routing Algorithm and Dynamic Routing Algorithm?
  • Explain TCP Connection management Finite State Machine. Explain all states in it.
  • What is the significance of the data link layer? Explain the design issues of the data link layer.
  • Explain the different layers of ATM.
  • Write short notes on
    (a) SNMP
    (b) Network Security

Must See: Operation Research Notes

FAQs on Computer Network Notes

1. Where can I get the Computer Network Notes PDF for free?

Candidates can get the Computer Network Notes PDF for free by referring to our page. You can download them and use as a reference during your preparation.

2. What are the best books for Computer Network?

We have compiled some of the best books for Computer Network that you can use as a reference. They are along the lines

  • Tanenbaum and David J Wetherall, Computer Networks, 5th Edition, Pearson Edu, 2010
  • Computer Networks: A Top-Down Approach, Behrouz A. Forouzan, FirouzMosharraf, McGraw Hill Education
  • Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks – A Systems Approach” (5th ed), Morgan Kaufmann/ Elsevier, 2011
  • Data Communications and Networking, Behrouz A. Forouzan, TMH

3. How to download Computer Network Study Material & Notes?

All you have to do is tap on the quick links available on our page to access the Computer Network Study Material & Notes. Make your preparation effective with the ultimate preparation tools.


We believe the information shared on our page as far as Computer Network Notes is concerned is genuine and reliable. If you have any other doubts feel free to reach us so that our expert team can guide you. Stay connected to our site for more information on Notes, Books, Syllabus, Previous Papers, etc.

Customer Relationship Management Notes MBA Pdf – Download MBA 4th Sem Study Materials & Books

Customer Relationship Management Notes MBA

Customer Relationship Management Notes & Study Materials Pdf Download: The fundamental factor behind any successful company is not just the CEO, the business innovation, or the technology, but it’s the loyalty of its customer base. The success stories of H&M or Maybelline or Apple all circles back to one main factor, customer loyalty. As the saying goes “Customer is the king”, has never been relevant to this extent in a competitive world that we happen to live in the 21st century. Hence, CRM plays a major role to give success for every company. It is very essential for MBA students to study & gain more knowledge on Customer Relationship Management subject. To help you all, today we have come up with the MBA 4th semester CRM subject Lecture Notes in pdf format.

In this article, you can refer to the attached download links of CRM MBA Study Materials & Books pdf. Students who are pursuing MBA Business Course should follow the lecture notes of CRM to crack the final 4th sem exam. With the help of the Customer Relationship Management Study Materials pdf, you can get more knowledge on the fundamentals and processes of CRM. From the below-given MBA Customer Relationship Management Notes Pdf download links, you can get the complete Study Material at your fingertips to prepare.

Contents Hidden in this Article:

Customer Relationship Management Notes & Study Materials Pdf Download

One thing that should be kept in mind, when we say customer relationship management, is it’s not confined to just the customer. Various other stakeholders are taken into consideration, as further briefed in this article.

But it’s not a simple task to gain customer loyalty. It takes efforts, authenticity, value addition, carefully crafted brand building and time to develop that trust between a customer and a company. Companies put in millions of dollars in order to gain a loyal customer base, without understanding the fundamentals of customer relationship management.

But its a different ball game now. The market is noisy, industry competition is at the peak of its cutthroat, consumer behaviour has changed drastically, and more importantly, customers are open to trying lots of things, and loyalty is becoming scarce by the day.

So what is this magic wand called customer relationship management, that everyone from Harward to IIMs and from Coca Cola to Apple, are talking about?

Before we going into talking about what is CMR, let us understand why CRM?

Customer Relationship Management Study Material

  • Empathize- While this might not be thought in your regular MBA textbooks, this is one of the most important reasons why CRM is important. Empathizing with your customer, whether its B2C or B2B company, helps you gain deep insights into the customer mindset while helping build that trust and reliability feeling amongst your customer base. Your existing customer base will act as a promotional tool to gain new customer, either through influencing or word-of-mouth
  • Ideate and design- Once you have gained access to your consumer mindset- their needs and wants and synchronizing it with your pains and gains, you can start ideating, brainstorming and designing the product or service that adds value to the market. At the end of the day, its the value addition that you provide to your customers, that matters the most.
  • Productivity and scale- This is a fundamental aspect of CRM. The difference between an engineer/designer and an MBA is that an engineer designs products as per his creativity and imagination while MBA designs products as per the market and financial liabilities. Because any product you design should be scalable and should have the required production capacity. The first two steps help analyze the viability of the third step
  • Profits- Who doesn’t need profits in this world? The whole business institutions run because of this one word, PROFITS! CRM provides you with a large customer base that increases your revenue and provides Economies of Scale (EOQ). Once EOQ is achieved, there you go, no one can stop you from reaping profits.

Components of CRM

Customer Relationship Management Notes MBA

Lets briefly understand what the above terms mean:

  • HRM- Human resource management.-An effective people strategy and reducing attrition rate goes a long way in increasing the efficiency of the workforce. Proper policies in place and effective implementation are the key factors here.
  • Customer service- This not only develops a healthy relationship with the customers, but a good servitization strategy also adds to different revenue models for the business. Along with that, the data obtained gives us an idea of customer purchase patterns, helps in inventory modeling, and eliminating supply chain bottlenecks.
  • Salesforce- Sales forecasting, processing, and tracking potential interactions help in business development and lead generation. It gives revenue generation opportunities and helps analyze the performance of the workforce.
  • Marketing- Promotional strategies, campaign management, and integrated media communications, including digital and offline campaigns, can all be improved and implemented well through effective usage of CRM.
  • Lead management- This helps in keeping a track of sales leads and distribution. This provides enough forecast data for production and inventory managers along with helping distributors scale-up in eliminating logistic bottlenecks.
  • Analytics- Corporate level decisions are made based on the data submitted by functional level and business level heads. Graphs, plots, and trends are collected that helps make predictions for business growth and prosperity.

Also, Check Related Articles:

There is plenty of CRM textbook and online tutorials that explain the fundamentals of customer relationship management to business students. Expertise yourself with the fundamentals of CRM and be ahead of the competition by using the available MBA 4th Sem CRM Books & Notes PDF.

MBA 4th Sem Customer Relationship Management Lecture Notes Pdf Download

Customer Relationship Management pdf Ebook free download Download
Customer Relationship Management pdf file Download
CRM lecture notes Download
CRM Question Paper pdf Download
Customer Relationship Management Text Book Download
Customer Relationship Management Ppt  Download

Suggested Books for MBA Customer Relationship Management

  •  Alok Kumar Rai, CRM CONCEPT & CASES, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi. 2011
  • S. Shanmugasundaram, CRM, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2008
  • Kaushik Mukherjee, CRM, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi, 2008
  • Jagdish Seth, et al, CRM
  • V. Kumar & Werner J., CRM, Willey India, 2008
  • Brand H Schmitt: CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE MANAGEMENT: A Revolutionary Approach To Connecting With Your Customers.
  • Gordon S. Linoff, Michael J. A. Berry, MINING THE WEB: TRANSFORMING CUSTOMER DATA, Wiley Computer Publishing, Singapore.
  • Jagdish Seth, et al: CRM
  • Jill Dyche: THE CRM HANDBOOK: A BUSINESS GUIDE TO CRM, Addison Wesley Information technology Series.
  • Kristin L. Anderson & Carol J Kerr: CRM
  • Lita van Wel and Lamb’s Royakkers, ETHICAL ISSUES IN WEB DATA MINING, ETHICS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 6: 129–140, 2004., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands
  • Mark Sweiger, Mark R. Madsen, Jimmy Langston, Howard Lombard, CLICKSTREAM DATA WAREHOUSING, Wiley Computer Publishing, Singapore.
  • Michael J. A. Berry, Gordon S. Linoff, DATA MINING TECHNIQUES: FOR MARKETING, SALES, AND CRM, Wiley Computer Publishing, Singapore.
  • Michael J. A. Berry, Gordon S. Linoff, MASTERING DATA MINING: THE ART AND SCIENCE OF CRM, Wiley Computer Publishing, Singapore.
  • Patrica 13. Ramaswamy, et al: HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW ON CRM
  • Ralph Kimball, Margy Ross, THE DATA WAREHOUSE TOOL KIT, Wiley Computer Publishing, Singapore.
  • Stanley A.Brown: CRM, John Wiley & Sons, Canada, Ltd.

MBA Customer Relationship Management Syllabus- 4th  Semester

Unit – I

CRM concepts – Acquiring customers, – Customer loyalty and optimizing customer relationships – CRM defined – success factors, the three levels of Service/ Sales Profiling – Service Level Agreements (SLAs), creating and managing effective SLAs.

Unit – II

CRM in Marketing – One-to-one Relationship Marketing – Cross-Selling & Up-Selling – Customer Retention, Behaviour Prediction – Customer Profitability & Value Modeling, – Channel Optimization – Event-based marketing. – CRM and Customer Service – The Call Centre, Call Scripting – Customer Satisfaction Measurement.

Unit – III

SalesForce Automation – Sales Process, Activity, Contact- Lead, and Knowledge Management – Field Force Automation. – CRM links in e-Business – E-Commerce and Customer Relationships on the Internet – Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), – Supply Chain Management (SCM), – Supplier Relationship Management (SRM), – Partner Relationship Management (PRM).

Unit – IV

Analytical CRM – Managing and sharing customer data – Customer information databases – Ethics and legalities of data use – Data Warehousing and Data Mining concepts – Data analysis – Market Basket Analysis (MBA), Clickstream Analysis, Personalization, and Collaborative Filtering.

Unit – V

CRM Implementation – Defining success factors – Preparing business plan requirements, justification, and processes. – Choosing CRM tools – Defining functionalities – Homegrown versus out-sourced approaches – Managing customer relationships – conflict, complacency, Resetting the CRM strategy. Selling CRM internally – CRM development Team – Scoping and prioritizing -Development and delivery – Measurement.

Important Review Question on Customer Relationship Management MBA

  •  Briefly, explain prioritizing in CRM.
  •  Who should scope a CRM Project?
  •  Elaborate in detail the CRM Development success metrics.
  • Explain in detail planning, construction, and deployment in a CRM project.
  • Briefly, explain the CRM delivery system.
  • Elaborate in detail the CRM program timeline.
  • How do you plan for CRM success?
  • “Garbage in, garbage out”, Explain.
  •  Explain in detail the CRM team.
  • Elaborate in detail the job roles that participate in CRM development.
  •  What is the purpose of measuring Customer Relationship Management?
  •  Explain in detail the CRM Measurement frameworks.
  •  Write short notes on Customer Value Analysis.
  • Briefly, highlight the relation of Balanced Scorecards in CRM.
  •  What are the attributes of a different CRM Measurement Framework?
  • Explain in detail the complexity of CRM Measurement

FAQs on CRM Books & Notes Pdf Download

1. What are the top 5 CRM systems?

Here we have mentioned the top 5 Customer Relationship Management solutions for the businesses to start with and gain more profits. They are as follows:

  1. Zoho CRM
  3. Salesforce Desk
  4. Freshdesk
  5. Zendesk

2. What is CRM?

Customer relationship management (CRM) includes all processes to attract customers and sustain a relationship with them. Additional processes involve the management of customer data, information analysis, and generating reports to get penetrations.

3. What are the best books for Customer Relationship Management?

Top 5 Best Books for CRM MBA 4th Sem Subject are listed below:

  1. CRM Fundamentals By Scott Kostojohn, Matthew Johnson, and Brian Paulen
  2. Customer Relationship Management: Concepts and Technologies 3rd Edition
  3. CRM: The Foundation of Contemporary Marketing Strategy
  4. Customer Relationship Management: Concept, Strategy, and Tools 2nd (second) 2012 Edition by Kumar
  5. The CRM Handbook: A Business Guide to Customer Relationship Management

Final Words

Provided MBA 4th Sem Customer Relationship Management Notes & Books Pdf will help you so much while exam preparation. Any university MBA students can download CRM MBA Books & Study materials Pdf for free of cost from here. Also, you can refer to the reference books and important questions of MBA Customer Relationship Management from this page. Guys share this article with your friends and support them during the exams to score better marks. However, you can also get more updated books & study materials from our site NCERTBOOKS.Guru, so bookmark it or visit our page regularly.

Download B.Tech 2nd Year E-Commerce Lecture Notes, Study Materials & Textbooks for free

E-commerce Full Notes

E-Commerce Full Notes & Study Material Pdf Download: Candidates who are pursuing a 2nd-year bachelor of technology can get E-commerce subject Textbooks and Lecture Notes from this page. Students can download these E-commerce books & study materials in Pdf format for free of cost. By downloading the best lecture notes for eCommerce, you can gain more knowledge about all the concepts in one place and it becomes handy during your exam preparation.

So, download ECommerce Textbooks and Full Notes Pdf by clicking on the links provided here and study well for the upcoming examination. Also, you can get more information about B.Tech 2nd Year E-commerce such as reference books, syllabus, and review questions list from the below modules.

Check the following links for related Articles:

About E-Commerce Subject in Btech 2nd Year

E-Commerce is a portion of E-Business. E-Business = Any time, Anywhere Business / Shopping. E-commerce is the act of buying and selling goods through the internet. Also, it is the use of technology towards the automation of business transactions and workflow. However, you can bag various advantages of e-commerce such as a reduction in paper costs, global reach, lower telecommunication, faster access to information, Diminished production cycle time, Improved customer service, etc. There are six basic types of e-commerce such as Business-to-Business (B2B), Business-to-Consumer (B2C), Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C), Consumer-to-Business (C2B), Business-to-Administration (B2A) and Consumer-to-Administration (C2A).

If you are excited to gain full-fledged knowledge about all these types of eCommerce then refer to the best Textbook or Lecture notes which are recommended by subject experts. In order to help you to find out the good books and study materials for E-commerce, we have provided the list of eCommerce notes & textbooks along with Pdf download links for free in the below sections. So, go through the modules and view the BTech 2nd year E-commerce Full Notes and know the latest Syllabus & important review questions.

Contents in This Article:

E-Commerce Full Notes Pdf Download Links for B. Tech 2nd Year

Aspirants who are studying 2nd year can avail the E-commerce full notes pdf from the below table. You can make use of the below-mentioned E-commerce Books & Study materials at the time of preparation. By using these PDF formatted best books and notes, you can score max. marks in the exam. With the help of E-commerce 2nd year lecture notes, you can easily understand the concepts explained in it. So, click on the download link and access the E-commerce Textbook & study materials in pdf files for free of cost.

B.Tech 2nd year E-Commerce Notes & Books Pdf Download Links
E-commerce Lecture Notes PDF Download
eCommerce pdf books for reference Download
E-commerce Full Notes PDF Download
E-Commerce Question Paper PDF Download

Suggested Books for E-Commerce B.Tech 2nd Year Subject

From this section, we will get to find out the best E-commerce reference books list along with author names. So, refer to the subjects experts Suggested E-Commerce Textbooks and study well for the exam. As it is a primary resource for the exam preparation everyone should check out the below-given list of e-commerce recommended books from the best authors while preparation and make it effective.

  • The E-Commerce – Business, Technology, Society, Kenneth C.Taudon, Carol Guyerico Traver.
  • Electronic Commerce – Gary P.Schneider – Thomson.
  • E-Commerce, S. Jaiswal – Galgotia.
  • Frontiers of electronic commerce – Kalakata, Whinston, Pearson.
  • E-Commerce, Efrain Turban, Jae Lee, David King, H.Michael Chang.
  • E-Commerce fundamentals and applications Hendry Chan, Raymond Lee, Tharam Dillon, Elizabeth Chang, John Wiley.

B.Tech 2nd Year E-Commerce Syllabus

Having a prior idea about the e-commerce syllabus helps you to know the concepts involved in the subject. You can even divide each topic and make a perfect schedule for exam preparation. Make sure to finish the study of the latest E-commerce Syllabus before appearing for the final examination. Have a glimpse at the below unit-wise B.Tech 2nd Year E-Commerce Syllabus and know the concepts and important topics in advance and prepare well for the examination.


Electronic Commerce-Frame work, the anatomy of E-Commerce applications, E-Commerce Consumer applications, E-Commerce organization applications. Consumer-Oriented Electronic commerce – Mercantile Process models.


Electronic payment systems – Digital Token-Based, Smart Cards, Credit Cards, Risks in Electronic Payment systems. Inter-Organizational Commerce – EDI, EDI Implementation, Value-added networks.


Intra Organizational Commerce – work Flow, Automation Customization and internal Commerce, Supply chain Management.


Corporate Digital Library – Document Library, digital Document types, corporate Data Warehouses. Advertising and Marketing – Information based marketing, Advertising on Internet, on-line marketing process, market research.


Consumer Search and Resource Discovery – Information search and Retrieval, Commerce Catalogues, Information Filtering.


Multimedia – key multimedia concepts, Digital Video and electronic Commerce, Desktop video processing, Desktop video conferencing.

List of E-Commerce Review Question for 2nd Year B.Tech Exam

  1. What is e-commerce? State how e-commerce differs from traditional commerce.
  2. What is e-retailing? Explain its advantages to consumers and businesses.
  3. Discuss the various available strategies of Internet advertisement
  4. What is electronic cash? Explain its properties and advantages.
  5. Distinguish between multitasking and multithreading. How are they different from multiprocessing?
  6. State the features of B2B commerce? Discuss the challenges of inter-organizational B2B commerce?
  7. Explain how enterprise resource planning and supply chain management software differs in their goals and implementations.
  8. What are the challenges for information search? How business houses find consumer information

FAQs on E-Commerce Books & Lecture Notes PDF Download

1. What is E-Commerce Notes?

E-Commerce signifies buying and selling of goods, products, or services via the internet. Electronic Commerce or Internet Commerce is the other name for E-commerce. All e-commerce services can be done online with the help of the internet network. However, Transaction of money, funds, and data are also recognized as E-commerce services.

2. How to Study for B.Tech 2nd-year E-commerce subject?

You can easily learn E-commerce by using the full notes and study materials provided over here. Moreover, you can also use the list of Electronic Commerce Reference Books which is presented on our page to study all the concepts of e-commerce without any fail.

3. How can I Download PDF formatted E-Commerce Full Notes & Books for free?

It is very simple to download E-commerce notes and study materials in Pdf format from our site Because we have attached the direct links to download E-Commerce Books Pdf, study materials ppt, and e-commerce Question Paper Pdf for free of cost on this page.

4. What are the best reference books for E-Commerce?

Below is the list of best E-commerce reference books along with author names. These are suggested by the subject experts so have a look at the below E-Commerce Recommended Books & Notes list:

  1. E-Commerce, S. Jaiswal – Galgotia.
  2. Frontiers of electronic commerce – Kalakata, Whinston, Pearson.
  3. E-Commerce fundamentals and applications Hendry Chan, Raymond Lee, Tharam Dillon, Elizabeth Chang, John Wiley.

Final Words

We gathered the possible information about E-Commerce Full Notes & Books pdf from various valid sources and provided here for the sake of the 2nd year engineering students and e-commerce professionals. If you need any assistance regarding Electronic commerce or eCommerce Study Materials & Textbooks PDF Download, reach us via the below comment box. Soon we’ll get back to you with the best possible solutions. Meanwhile, share this article with your friends and try to help them in their exam preparation. Also, bookmark our site and get more related info about E-commerce reference books, notes, study materials, review questions,

Download Operation Research Notes, Study Material & Reference Books for free

Operation Research Notes

Operation Research Notes PDF: Are you guys pursuing B.Tech and looking for Operation Research Study Material? Don’t bother as you have landed on the right page. We are here to assist you during your preparation. Have a glance at the Operation Research Reference Books, Syllabus, and Study Materials in the forthcoming modules.

To make it easy for you we have compiled quick links for you to download the OR Notes PDF from our page. Look no further and grab this opportunity to aid your preparation. We don’t charge any amount from you and they are easily accessible for you. Score max. marks in the exam with the handy preparation resources available here.

Download Operation Research Study Material

Candidates can get guidance regarding the Operation Research Notes & Study Material from here. Apart from the regular study material we also provided important questions, reference books syllabus, etc. Students pursuing their B.Tech can use the direct links available on our page to access the Operation Research Notes. Make sure you use all the ultimate resources for preparation and score well in the exam.

Mechanical Engineering Operation Research Notes PDF

Candidates pursuing the B.Tech can have a look at the Operation Research Notes existing here. You can access the Operation Research Study Material & Notes through the quick links available. Access the Previous Year Question Papers too so that you can estimate the kind of questions to appear in the exam. Have deeper insight into the topics and get a grip on the fundamentals of the subject.

Operation Research PDF ebook Free Download Download
Operations Research Lecture Notes PPT Download
Operations Research Problems and Solutions PDF Download
Operations Research PDF ebook Download Download
Operation Research Question Paper Download

Operation Research Reference Books

Having the right books during preparation will always be an extra edge during your preparation. We have compiled some of the best books for Operation Research that can ace up your preparation. Begin your preparation right now so that it becomes easy for you to score more marks. Pick any of the following Operation Research Books based on the level of understanding and prepare accordingly. Make the most out of these preparation aids and have an indepth knowledge of the concepts.

  • P. Sankara Iyer,” Operations Research”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008
  • J K Sharma. “Operations Research Theory & Applications, 3e”, Macmillan India Ltd, 2007
  • A.M. Natarajan, P. Balasubramani, A. Tamilarasi, “Operations Research”, Pearson Education, 2005
  • N.V.S. Raju, “Operations Research”, HI-TECH, 2002
  • J K Sharma., “Operations Research, Problems and Solutions, 3e”, Macmillan India Ltd
  • P. K. Gupta and D. S. Hira, “Operations Research”, S. Chand & co., 2007

Also, Refer: Statistics with R Programming Books

Operation Research Syllabus

Operation Research Syllabus is designed in a way that it boosts the knowledge and polishes the skills of students. The Syllabus varies from institute to institute and the core of it remains the same. Have a look at the Operation Research Exam Syllabus prevailing and get to know the topics you need to cover. Check out the Unitwise Operation Research Syllabus PDF and know the concepts in advance. Make your preparation plan in accordance with the Syllabus or Curriculum over here. Complete all the topics in advance so that you will not have any difficulty while attempting the exam.

Unit – I

Introduction to Operations Research: Basics definition, scope, objectives, phases, models, and limitations of Operations Research. Linear Programming Problem – Formulation of LPP, Graphical solution of LPP. Simple Method, Artificial variables, big-M method, two-phase method, degeneracy, and unbound solutions.

Unit – II

Transportation Problem, Formulation, solution, unbalanced Transportation problem, Finding basic feasible solutions, Northwest corner rule, least cost method, and Vogel’s approximation method, Optimality test: the stepping stone method and MODI method

Unit – III

Assignment model. Formulation. The Hungarian method for the optimal solution, Solving the unbalanced problem, Traveling salesman problem and assignment problem Sequencing models, Solution of Sequencing Problem, Processing n Jobs through 2 Machines, Processing n Jobs through 3 Machines, Processing 2 Jobs through m machines, Processing n Jobs through m Machines

Unit – IV

Dynamic programming, Characteristics of dynamic programming, Dynamic programming approach for Priority Management employment smoothening, capital budgeting, Stage Coach/Shortest Path, cargo loading, and Reliability problems Games Theory, Competitive games, rectangular game, saddle point, minimax (maximin) method of optimal strategies, value of the game, Solution of games with saddle points, dominance principle, Rectangular games without saddle point, mixed strategy for 2 X 2 games.

Unit -V

Replacement Models, The Replacement of Items that Deteriorate whose maintenance costs increase with time without a change in the money value, Replacement of items that fail suddenly: individual replacement policy, group replacement policy

Unit – VI

Inventory models, Inventory costs, Models with deterministic demand – model (a) demand rate uniform and production rate infinite, model (b) demand rate non-uniform and production rate infinite, model (c) demand rate uniform, and production rate finite.

Important Questions List for Operation Research

Aspirants willing to appear for the Operation Research Exam should go through the list of the important questions over here. There are more chances of appearing in the exam. So, read the review questions without fail and crack the exam with confidence.

  • Explain briefly the characteristics of a queuing system?
  • Find the optimal economic order quantity for a product having the following characteristics: Annual demand=2400 unit Ordering cost=Rs.100 Cost of storage=24% of unit cost.
  • A TV repairman finds that the time spent on his jobs has an exponential distribution with mean 30 minutes. If he repairs sets in the order in which they come in, and if the arrival of sets is approximately Poison with an average rate of 10 per 8 hour day, what is repairman’s expected idle time each day? How many jobs are ahead of the average set just brought in?
  • What are the demerits of dynamic programming?
  • Discuss the types of simulation models?
  • What do you understand by simulation? Explain briefly its advantages and disadvantages?
  • What are the pre-requisites for applying dynamic programming?

Do Check: Mathematical Foundation of Computer Science Notes

FAQs on Operation Research Notes

1. What books should I read to learn Operation Research?

We have compiled some of the best books for Operation Research recommended by subject experts. They are as follows

  • P. Sankara Iyer,” Operations Research”, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008
  • J K Sharma. “Operations Research Theory & Applications, 3e”, Macmillan India Ltd, 2007
  • A.M. Natarajan, P. Balasubramani, A. Tamilarasi, “Operations Research”, Pearson Education, 2005

2. Where can I get Operation Research Notes & Study Material PDF?

Aspirants can get the Operation Research Notes & Study Material in PDF Format through the direct links available on our page.

3. How can I Learn Operation Research?

You can learn Operation Research subject through the ultimate preparation resources available on our page like Study Material, Notes, Syllabus, Review Questions, etc.


I wish the data shed above regarding Operation Research Notes has been helpful to an extent in clarifying your concerns. If you have any other queries feel free to leave us a comment via comment box and we will help you at the earliest possibility. Stay connected to our site NcertBooks.Guru for more latest updates concerning the Syllabus, Previous Papers, Reference Books & Course Details.

Software Testing Methodologies Reference Books – B.Tech 3rd Year Lecture Notes & Study Material PDF

Software Testing Methodologies

Software Testing Methodologies: Guys who are searching tediously for Software Testing Methodologies Notes & Study Material can halt their search here. We will provide you with the Best Books for Software Testing Methodologies that aid your preparation. Download the B.Tech 3rd Year Software Testing Study Material from our page for free and use it to make your preparation effective.

We even furnished additional info like Important Questions List, Syllabus, Software Testing Suggested Books by experts. Access the quick links over here and download the best study material for Software Testing without paying any amount. Prepare well for the exam with the ultimate preparation related resources.

About Software Testing Methodologies

Software Testing is the design and implementation of a special kind of software system. One that exercises another software system with the intent of finding bugs. Testing kills half of the time you need to work for a regular functional program. It’s a myth that Good Programmers write code without bugs. Well Written Programs too have 1- 3 bugs for a hundred lines code.

Software Testing Methodologies Textbook PDF Download

Aspirants pursuing B.Tech or about to pursue B.Tech can use the Software Testing Methodologies Notes during their preparation. In fact, go through the Study Materials, Notes prevailing here to have a better understanding of concepts. Make sure you solve the Software Testing Question Papers here so that you can identify your strengths and weaknesses. Use the ultimate tools of preparation and make the most out of these.

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Software Testing Methodologies Notes Pdf Download

Software Testing Methodologies Reference Books

We have compiled some of the best books for Software Testing Methodologies that can ease your preparation. You can score max. marks in the exam by using these Books suggested by subject experts. Get to know the fundamentals of various testing methodologies by accessing the Software Testing Methodologies Reference Books List. Choose a book from the below compilation as per your convenience and understanding

  • Software testing techniques – Boris Beizer, Dreamtech, second edition.
  • The Craft of software testing – Brian Marick, Pearson Education.
  • Software Testing- Yogesh Singh, Cambridge
  • Introduction to Software Testing, P.Ammann&J.Offutt, Cambridge Univ.Press.
  • Software Testing, 3rd edition, P.C. Jorgensen, Aurbach Publications ( SPD).
  • Software Testing, N.Chauhan, Oxford University Press.
  • Effective methods of Software Testing, Perry, John Wiley, 2nd Edition, 1999.
  • Software Testing Concepts and Tools, P.NageswaraRao, dream tech Press
  • Foundations of Software Testing, D.Graham& Others, Cengage Learning
  • Win Runner in simple steps by Hakeem Shittu, 2007 Genixpress.

Also, Refer to the following articles

B.Tech 3rd Year Software Testing Methodologies Syllabus

We tried mentioning the Software Testing Methodologies Syllabus over here. Refer to the Syllabus and get to know the concepts as per the Units. Be familiar with the topics under each unit and then allot time accordingly. B. Tech 3rd Year Students can make use of the Software Testing Syllabus prevailing to score more marks. You can refer to our site and check out the exam syllabus whenever you feel like preparing. The first step in preparation is to gather the Syllabus and we have removed that burden for you. Plan your preparation strategy as per the Latest and Updated Software Testing Methodologies Syllabus.

Unit I

Introduction: Purpose of Testing, Dichotomies, Model for Testing, Consequences of Bugs, Taxonomy of Bugs. Flow graphs and Path testing: Basics Concepts of Path Testing, Predicates, Path Predicates and Achievable Paths, Path Sensitizing, Path Instrumentation, Application of Path Testing.

Unit II

Transaction Flow Testing: Transaction Flows, Transaction Flow Testing Techniques. Data flow testing: Basics of Dataflow Testing, Strategies in Dataflow Testing, Application of Dataflow Testing.

Unit III

Domain Testing: Domains and Paths, Nice & Ugly Domains, Domain testing, Domains, and Interfaces Testing, Domain and Interface Testing, Domains, and Testability. Paths, Path products, and Regular expressions: Path Products & Path Expression, Reduction Procedure, Applications, Regular Expressions & Flow Anomaly Detection.

Unit IV

Syntax Testing: Why What and How, A Grammar for formats, Test Case Generation, Implementation and Application, and Testability Tips. Logic-Based Testing: Overview, Decision Tables, Path Expressions, KV Charts, and Specifications.

Unit V

State, State Graphs, and Transition Testing: State Graphs, Good & Bad State Graphs, State Testing, and Testability Tips. Graph Matrices and Application:-Motivational overview, matrix of graph, relations, power of a matrix, node reduction algorithm.

Unit VI

Software Testing Tools: Introduction to Testing, Automated Testing, Concepts of Test Automation, Introduction to list of tools like Win Runner, Load Runner, JMeter, About Win Runner, Using Win runner, Mapping the GUI, Recording Test, Working with Test, Enhancing Test, Checkpoints, Test Script Language, Putting it all together, Running and Debugging Tests, Analyzing Results, Batch Tests, Rapid Test Script Wizard.

List of Software Testing Methodologies Important Questions

Go through the software testing methodologies review questions prevailing on our page. Try reading them without fail as they are important in helping you score good marks. Try covering the Important Questions List first during your preparation.

  • Explain the life cycle of Bug.
  • Discuss Myths related to software testing and its facts.
  • How to verify high-level decision? Discuss briefly.
  • A program calculates the GCD of three numbers in the range [1, 50]. Design test cases for this program using BVC, robust testing, and worst-case testing methods.
  • Explain in detail about Cyclomatic Complexity. Illustrate with an example.
  • Discuss the Selective Retest Technique.
  • Write and explain about Top-down integration testing.
  • What is the procedure for performing thread-based integration testing? Discuss briefly.
  • List and explain various guidelines for Automated testing.
  • What is the need for minimizing test cases in a project? Illustrate with an example.
  • What is Six Sigma? Explain briefly.

FAQs on Software Testing Methodologies

1. What are the best books for Software Testing Methodologies?

We will not say one specific book as the best book. But, we have compiled a collection of books that are considered great for your preparation by subject experts. They are along the lines

  • Software testing techniques – Boris Beizer, Dreamtech, second edition.
  • The Craft of software testing – Brian Marick, Pearson Education.
  • Software Testing- Yogesh Singh, Cambridge
  • Introduction to Software Testing, P.Ammann&J.Offutt, Cambridge Univ.Press.

2. Where can I download the Software Testing Methodologies Study Material PDF?

Aspirants can get the Software Testing Methodologies Study Material in PDF format easily through the direct links available on our page.

3. Is preparing the Software Testing Methodologies Notes enough to score more marks?

Yes, Software Testing Methodologies Notes can be a great source of preparation for the exam. However, try referring to the other textbooks and study material prevailing here.

Final Words

We wish the information shared above in regards to Software Testing Methodologies have been beneficial in clarifying your concerns. For any other queries do leave us a comment via comment box and our expert team will reach you out at the earliest. Stay connected to our site for more updates on Reference Books, Syllabus, Previous Papers, Notes, Course Details, etc.