Careers in Medicine – Personal Attributes, Specialisations, How to Enter?

Careers in Medicine

Medicine is one of the noble and traditional professions, which continues to be a prestigious, respectable and lucrative career. It is one of the most challenging and offers rewarding career opportunities both in service sector as well as in private practice.

Careers in Medicine – Personal attributes

Keeping in view the nature and requirements of the medical profession, one needs to have passion to serve the sick with passion and work for longer hours. One has to be mentally alert, willingness to learn and use sophisticated equipments, spirit of duty and responsibility and ability to lead a team.

Careers in Medicine – How to enter?

To be medical expert or practitioner, you must have passed 10+2 in science with Physics, Chemistry and Biology/Biotechnology with a minimum of 50% marks to be eligible for applying for admission to a 5V2 year Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) course, which is followed by one year compulsory rotating residential internship.

The degree is awarded only after completion of this internship which enables you to join as a doctor in a hospital or to do your own practice. To make you familiar with the various departments of a hospital and expose you to the different situations that crop up in a hospital, as an intern, you are posted in all the departments of the hospital on a rotation basis. This enables you to gain clinical and practical knowledge about all the disciplines of Medicine.

Admission to medical colleges throughout the country is maae on the basis of single eligibility cum entrance examination namely NEET, conducted by CBSE during May. Some Prominent institutes like AIIMS, JIPMER conduct their own entrance exam at all India level. Further details are given in the foregoing sections.

Besides MBBS and BDS (Bachelor of Dental Science), Bachelor in Homoeopathy (B.H.M.S), Bachelor in Pharmacy (B.Pharm), B.Sc Nursing, Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine (BAMS), Bachelor of Unani Medicine & Surgery (BUMS), Bachelor of Physiotherapy (BPT), Bachelor of Occupational Therapy (BOT), etc. are also important degrees related to the medical profession.

Know more Course Details:

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After completing your MBBS/BDS you can go for specialisation in Anaesthesiology, Anatomy, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Cardiology, Community Medicine, Dermatology/ Venereology, Endocrinology, Forensic Medicine, Gastroenterology, General Medicine, Medicine & Therapeutics, Microbiology, Neurology, Nuclear Medicine, Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Occupational Health, Ophthalmology, Ortho, Paediatrics, Pathology, Pharmacology, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Physiology, Psychiatry, Radio diagnosis, Radiotherapy, Orthopaedics, Otorhinolaryngology, Surgery, Nephrology, Neurosurgery, Pediatric Surgery, Urology, etc. Admission to these courses of specialisation is given on the basis of entrance examination.

Similarly, there is provision for pursuing further studies after completing BHMS, BAMS, BUMS, BPT, BOT degree courses. Admission is generally granted on the basis of your performance in the respective entrance examinations conducted by the concerned authorities.

Specialisations in Medical at a Glance


An oncologist specializes in diagnosing and treating cancer using chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy, and targeted therapy. Often, he is the main health care provider for cancer patients. The three main types of oncologists are medical, surgical, and radiation oncologists.

Pay & Perks:

In the government sector, a surgical/medical oncologist can easily earn Rs.50,000 to 80,0000 a month.approx. As one gains experience, he could earn 90,000 to Rs.l lakh approx., or above per month. Pay package varies in the private sector, depending upon the level and standard or the establishment vis-a-vis your knoweldge, expertise and reputation in the profession.

How to enter?

To be an oncologist, after completing high school, you need to study science with Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Complete your MBBS, after which you can do either of these three-year courses: (a) MS, followed by a three-year Mch programme, b) MD (Medicine/paediatrics), topped up with a DM (medical oncology) qualification or C) MD in radiotherapy. If you can’t do Ms or MD, opt for DNB (Diploma).\

Careers in Medicine – Surgery

General Surgeon

A general surgeon deals with common problems that occurs in abdomen, digestive tract, endocrine system, breast, skin, and blood vessels. He/she diagnoses the problems and treat the patient with the use of minimally invasive and endoscopic (looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body) techniques.

A general surgeon receives training in hand surgery, hospice and palliative medicine, paediatric surgery, surgical critical care, vascular surgery.

Colon and Rectal Surgeon OR Colorectal Surgeons

Colorectal surgery deals with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon. Physicians specializing in this field are colorectal surgeons or proctologists. A colon and rectal surgeon is trained medical professional who has expertise in diagnosing and treating various diseases of the small intestine, colon, rectum, anal canal, and perianal area by medical and surgical means.

Orthopaedic Surgeon

Orthopedics is a surgical discipline that employs many tools to insert equipment such as pins, rods and bolts.
An orthopaedic surgeon has expertise in the preservation, investigation, and restoration of the form and function of the extremities, spine, and associated structures by medical, surgical, and physical means.
Orthopaedic surgeons can receive training in Orthopaedic sports medicine, Surgery of the hand.

Plastic Surgeon

A plastic surgeon deals with the repair, reconstruction, or replacement of physical defects of form or function. These could be of the skin, musculoskeletal system, head and facial structures, hands, extremities, breasts, and trunk. Or cosmetic enhancement of these areas. Cosmetic surgery is a part of plastic surgery.


A neurologist deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases pertaining to brain or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, and autonomic nervous system as well as the blood vessels that relate to these structures.


Obstetrics and Gynaecology is concerned with the care of the pregnant woman, her unborn child and the management of diseases specific to women. An obstetrician/gynecologist possesses special knowledge, skills, and professional capability in the medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system and associated disorders. He/she serves as a consultant to other physicians and as a primary physician for women.


A pathologist deals with the causes and nature of diseases and contributes to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment through knowledge gained by the laboratory application of the biologic, chemical, and physical sciences.
A pathologist receives training in Blood banking/ transfusion medicine, Chemical pathology, Cytopathology, Dermatopathology, Forensic pathology, Hematology, Medical microbiology, Molecular genetic pathology, Neuropathology and Pediatric pathology.

Neurological Surgeon

A surgeon who deals with prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, critical care, and rehabilitation of disorders of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their supporting structures and vascular supply is called Neurological surgeon.

Careers in Medicine – Thoracic surgeon

Operations on the heart, lungs, oesophagus, and other organs in the chest are performed by a Thoracic surgeon. Types of thoracic surgeons include cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiovascular surgeons, general thoracic surgeons, and congenital heart surgeons.


An anesthesiologist is a medical professional who has expertise in providing pain relief and maintenance or restoration of a stable condition of patient during and immediately after an operation or diagnostic procedure.

Careers in Medicine – Dermatologist

Deramtologist is a skin specialist. He/she diagnose and treat pediatric and adult patients with disorders of the skin, mouth, external genitalia, hair, and nails as well as a number of sexually transmitted diseases (STD).


An ophthalmologist is a specialist who deals with medical and surgical eye problems. He takes care of eye and vision care for patients of all ages. He diagnoses, monitors, and medically or surgically treats all ocular and visual disorders. To provide consultative services for the diagnosis and management of ocular manifestation of systemic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and infectious and non-infectious inflammation is also a part of his duty..

Careers in Medicine – Otolaryngology

An otolaryngologist is a head and neck surgeon. He deals with disorders of ears, nose, throat, the respiratory and upper alimentary systems, and related structures. He/she diagnoses and provides medical and surgical therapy or prevention of allergies, deformities, disorders and injuries.

Otolaryngologists can receive subspecialties in neurotology, pediatric otolaryngology, plastic surgery, reconstructive procedures within the head, face, neck, and associated structures, including cutaneous head and neck oncology and reconstruction, management of maxillofacial trauma, soft tissue repair, and neural surgery.


A pediatrician is a specialized medical professional to diagnose and treat different types of chronic disorders, injuries and infections in infants, children and teens. He/she performs general check-ups, offers vaccination or immunization therapies to the new bom babies, treats certain diseases such as sinus infections, ear infections, sore throats, mononucleosis, and flu to name a few.

Pediatricians are generally trained in the subspecialties like neonatal-perinatal medicine, pediatric critical care medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric cardiology, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric sports medicine, etc. ‘

Careers in Medicine – Psychiatrist

Psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders, etc.

His job is to understand the biologic, psychologic, and social components of illness in order to uniquely treat the whole person.

Psychiatrists are trained in the subspecialties such as addiction psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, clinical neurophysiology, forensic psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry hospice and palliative medicine, pain management, psychosomatic medicine, etc.


A radiologist uses imaging methodologies such as x-ray, ionizing radiation, radionuclides, electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound, and image-guided intervention to diagnose patients. Radiologists are trained in the following subspecialties: neuroradiology, nuclear radiology, pediatric radiology, vascular and interventional radiology.


Urology is the study of the anatomy, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genitourinary disorders. A urologist manages congenital and acquired conditions of the genitourinary system and contiguous structures including the adrenal gland.


An audiologist identifies, diagnoses, treats and monitors disorders of the auditory and vestibular system portions of the ear.


The core job of a Haematologist is to provide an advisory and consultancy service to all hospital specialists and general practitioners and manage diagnostic laboratories. He provides clinical interpretation of laboratory data and morphology of blood and bone marrow specimens. In addition, delivering clinical care, often for life-threatening disease, formulating chemotherapy protocols and managing their delivery; managing hemipoietic stem cell transplantion procedures; etc

Haematologists generally go for specialties in haemato-oncology, haemostasis/thrombosis, disorders of blood production and destruction (including bone marrow failure, anaemias and autoimmune blood diseases), transfusion medicine and paediatric haematology.

Histopathologist/ Histopathology

Histopathology is the diagnosis and study of disease by expert medical interpretation of cells and tissue samples. Histopathologist works in lab with laboratory scientists and doctors from other clinical specialties. He has in-depth knowledge of both pathological and clinical aspects of disease. His functions are to examine and dissect surgical resection specimens, to select the most appropriate samples for microscope slides, to observe and note down microscopic examination of tissues to prepare cinical reports.

Microbiologists and Virologists

Medical microbiologists and virologists are the specialists who diagnose, treat and help in prevention of the spread of infection in community.

Microbiologist works with hospital infection control teams to reduce the spread of infections in hospitals. He contributes to the protection of public health by monitoring the patterns of infectious diseases and reporting new or unusual occurrences of infections.


The role of the rheumatologist is to diagnose, treat and advise patients with arthritis and problems affecting the joints, muscles, bones and sometimes other internal organs (e.g., kidneys, lungs, blood vessels, brain).

Internal Medicine

Internal medicine or general medicine is the medical speciality dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. He provides long-term comprehensive care in the office and the hospital, managing both common and complex illness of adolescents, adults, and the elderly.

Internists are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of of cancer, infections, and diseases affecting the heart, blood, kidneys, joints and digestive, respiratory, and vascular systems.

Nuclear Medicine Specialist

A nuclear medicine specialist uses the tracer principle to evaluate molecular, metabolic, physiologic and pathologic conditions of the body for the purposes of diagnosis, therapy and research. Nuclear medicine encompasses molecular imaging. Imaging systems are used to detect the tracer signal to provide spatial and temporal information on the processes of interest.

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What to Eat When Studying | Best Brain Food Snacks for Studying

What To Eat When Studying

The food that one puts into their body can have a significant impact on their brain and how it works. If you are a student and are trying to memorize, process and understand a lot of new information, it is necessary to keep your health in check. Be mindful of what you put into your body.

Choosing to stay healthy can help you in promoting your academic performance, helping you reach your educational goal. Even though it is essential to maintain an overall healthy diet that will keep your body and brain nourished, allowing you to be ready to take on various challenging tasks, researches have shown that certain foods may be necessary especially for the brain health and promoting mental performance.

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Before we know about what we should eat, let’s learn about why it is necessary to eat well. It is always better to learn about how the food you eat affects one’s body and brain. Making healthy food choices will help one in improving their memory, fuel their brain and help them in excelling your study schedule.

How Does Food Affect Your Brain?

The brain is the most complex and complicated part of one’s body. The brain is like a computer, and it runs millions of processes every day at every moment. The brain never stops working, so it continually needs to be fuelled by glucose, a type of sugar, which operates the brain.

The body obtains glucose from the food that we consume, and it is delivered to the brain through the bloodstream. However, the problem is, the brain is unable to store glucose, so the levels of glucose need to be topped every day.
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If the brain is not adequately fuelled, one is most likely to feel irritated and sad. One might also face trouble in sleeping, concentrating, has low memory and difficulty in problem-solving. This is one of the leading reasons why it is necessary to eat well for studying to have a better level of concentration and focus.

How Does Food Affect Your Brain

Which Foods are The Best Fuels For The Brain?

There are numerous types of foods. However, not all types of foods are beneficial and healthy for the brain. Healthy food for your brain that will help you in studying includes:

  • Protein –meat, eggs, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts and seeds dairy products, dried beans and lentils and soy products. Protein helps the brain in sending messages to the rest of the body. It helps in creating brain chemicals that will help one in improving their mood.
  • Water –our brain is 73% water and water is essential for keeping the body and brain in a tip-top shape, stimulating proper brain functioning.
  • Antioxidants –fruits and vegetables, including berries and pomegranate juice, is high on antioxidants. Antioxidants can help in delaying or even prevent specific effects of ageing on the brain.
  • Caffeine –Coffee, tea, and dark chocolate are high in protein. Caffeine, when consumed in small amounts, can help one feel refreshed and more focused.
  • Dietary Cholesterol –Egg yolks and dairy contains dietary cholesterol. Our brain relies on cholesterol to create the cells that are needed for sending messages to the rest of the body.
  • Omega-3 –Omega-3 is contained in chicken, beef, oilfish, flax seeds and flax oil and eggs. Omega-3s have been found to help the brain is working harder and also helping in improve one’s mental health.
  • Monounsaturated fats –olive oil, nuts, avocado, peanut oil and canola oil. Foods containing monounsaturated fats can help in improving your memory and help the brain is working harder, faster, stronger and better.

Top Food Items for The Brain for Studying and Exams

The following food items have been linked to improving brain health and serve as excellent choices when one is cramming for an exam.

Here are the top foods for the brain that help in studying.

  • Citrus fruits 

Citrus fruits are extremely nutritious, and their consumption has been associated with a variety of health benefits, along with the promotion of brain health. Citrus fruits such as oranges and grapefruit are rich in flavonoids – including naringin, hesperidin, rutin and quercetin, among others.

These compounds not only have the ability to promote memory and learning but also protect nerve cells from injury – hence warding off mental decline. Studies have shown that drinking citrus fruits may also help in promoting mental performance.

A study performed in 40 young adults showed that drinking 500 ml of 100% orange and grapefruit juice helped in enhancing blood flow to the brain and significantly improving performance on a test that involved matching symbols to numbers in comparison to a control drink.

Even though fruit juices are more concentrated sources of these potential brain-health-promoting compounds, the whole citrus fruits are also rich sources of flavonoids which can also be used as a snack when studying or even preparing for an exam.

  • Berries 

Berries are filled with a variety of compounds which may help you in promoting academic performance and also protect that health of your brain. Berries including strawberries, blueberries and blackberries are exceptionally high in flavonoids compounds known as anthocyanins.

Anthocyanins are believed to help in improving mental performance by increasing the flow of blood to the brain, protecting against inflammation, as well as improving specific signalling pathways that help in promoting nerve cell production and cellular processes that are involved in memory and learning.

A number of human studies have shown that berry intake positively affects brain functioning. One study done in 40 people examined the effects of consumption of 400 ml smoothie containing equal amounts of strawberry, blueberry, raspberry and blackberry.

It showed that smoothie led to the quicker response times on attention and task-taking tests and helped the participants in maintaining accuracy on these tests for over 6 hours compared to in a placebo group.

Furthermore, a review including 12 studies done in children, young adults and older adults showed that 8 of the studies reported an improved mental performance – including short-term, long-term, and spatial memory tests, after the consumption of blueberry and blueberry supplements.

However, the researchers have concluded that full well-designed studies are required and essential to confirm this possible benefit.

There are several other studies, including anthocyanin-rich berries which have also reported improvements in mental performance.

  • Beets 

Beet products and beet itself is rich in nitrates, which our body converts into a molecule known as nitric oxide. Nitric oxide plays many essential roles in one’s health, including proper blood flow, proper nerve cell communication, and brain function.

Consumption of nitrate-rich beets and beet products has been associated with the improvement in brain functioning in some studies.

A study with 40 adults found that drinking 450 ml of beet juice improved blood flow to the brain and enhanced the performance in a subtraction test, in comparison to a placebo.

Another study in 24 younger and older adults showed that drinking 10 ml of beet juice significantly increased the concentration of blood nitrate and improved reaction time on a mental test in both the age groups, in comparison to a placebo.

One can increase their dietary intake of nitrates by enjoying roasted beets with a meal before any exam or sipping on fresh beet juice when studying.

  • Eggs 

Eggs are often known as to as nature’s multivitamin because of the variety of nutrients that they contain. Eggs are particularly rich in nutrients that are necessary for the proper functioning of the brain, including choline, vitamin B12, and selenium.

For instance, selenium is involved in coordination, cognition, memory and motor performance. In contrast, choline is needed for the brain development and production of neurotransmitter acetylcholine that is necessary for memory storage and muscle function.

Vitamin B12 plays a vital role in neurological health and having low levels of this vitamin that impairs brain functioning. However, one must eat the whole egg and not just the egg white. This will help in reaping their potential brain-function-promoting benefits.

  • Dark chocolate & cocoa products 

Cocoa contains the highest flavonoid content by weight compared to any other food, which is why products of cocoa-like chocolate significantly contribute to dietary flavonoid intake. Consumption of flavonoid-rich cocoa products may favourably affect your brain health.

A study done with 90 adults having mild mental impairment were asked to drink a cocoa beverage that contained either 45 mg, 520 mg or 990 mg of cocoa flavonoids at per serving once a day for 8 weeks.

At the end of the study, people who consumed the high flavonoid beverage performed significantly better in mental tests than others who had been assigned low flavonoid beverages.

Also, the high and intermediate flavonoid groups had improved insulin sensitivity. This was suggested to be the primary cause for the improved functioning of the brain. Insulin is the hormone that helps in moving sugar from the blood into the cells, where it is used as an energy source.

Other studies have also shown that cocoa intake may help in reducing mental fatigue, improve blood flow to the brain and also boost memory and reaction time taken in mental tasks. Interestingly, flavonoids are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, which is a semipermeable membrane that protects the brain. It directly acts on the areas of the brain that controls attention and memory.

  • Fish 

As mentioned earlier in the article, Omega-3s are essential fats that play a vital role in brain health. They are concentrated in fatty fish which are also excellent sources for other brain-health-promoting nutrients such as vitamin B12 and selenium.

It is of no surprise that several studies have linked the consumption of fish to the enhancement of brain function. One study done in 76 Japanese adults showed that higher fish intake is linked with better memory performance and brain health.

Another study done in more than 17000 school students found that an intake of 8 grams of fish each day was significantly associated with better grades in mathematics and German, compared to limited or no fish intake.

However, it was also seen in the study that this association declined in the highest category of fish intake. The researchers have suggested that this may be due to the higher intake of mercury and other harmful pollutants that are found in seafood.

There are many other studies that have linked fish intake to better mental performance and a slower rate of mental decline. This has been attributed to the concentration of essential nutrients – including omega 3 fats present in fish.

  • Nuts 

Nuts are filled with nutrients that are vital for brain health, such as vitamin E and zinc. They are also versatile and portable, making them an excellent choice a snack for study time.

Nuts are concentrated sources of protein, fibre and healthy fats. They can help in keeping you fuelled throughout your marathon study sessions. Also, some research has shown that snacking on nuts can even help in improving certain aspects of brain function.

A study done on 64 college students found that adding walnuts to their diet for 8 weeks led to a significant improvement of 11.2% in their ability to interpret verbal information in comparison with a placebo.

A population-based study of 15467 women showed that consuming at least 5 servings of nuts each week was associated with better overall mental status.

Furthermore, another study on 317 children found that intake of nuts was related to the improved reaction time and performance on brain test.

  • Red, orange and green vegetables 

Consumption of vegetables is generally associated with the better function of the brain and also promotes the overall health of a person. Red, orange and green vegetables including carrots, peppers and broccoli, contain a variety of beneficial plant compounds such as carotenoid pigments which have been shown to benefit one’s mental performance.

The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin that is present in them accumulates in the retina of the eye. This accumulation is referred to as the macular pigment optical density (MPOD).

A study done in 51 children between the ages of 7 to 13 showed that MPOD was significantly related to the functioning of the brain and intellectual ability.

Another study with 56 children between the ages of 9 to 9 also found that MPOD was positively associated with academic performance.

On the other hand, lower MPOD has been associated with reducing mental performance. A study done in 4453 adults showed that lower MPOD was associated with more unsatisfactory performance on more insufficient memory, mental tests and slower reaction time.

The vegetable that is richest in lutein and zeaxanthin are parsley, kale, peas, basil, spinach, leeks, carrots, lettuce, broccoli and green and red peppers. Pistachios and eggs are also good sources of zeaxanthin and lutein.

For a satisfying and filling pre-study-session meal that is rich in brain-health-promoting carotenoids, have large spinach and herb salad with chopped red pepper, hard-boiled eggs and sliced carrots. You can also dress the salad with vinegar and drizzle of olive oil along with some handful of chopped pistachios for the extra protein and healthy fats.

Following a healthy diet plan is essential, especially when you are studying or preparing for exams. Your brain and body are working more during your exams, and you need to give it the correct amount of nutrition that it needs.

Although an overall healthy diet and lifestyle is necessary, researches have shown that certain food items may help in enhancing mental performance, making it an excellent option for students.

If you are looking to enhancing your mental performance and improving your overall health, try adding any of the food items that have been listed above in your diet.

Snacks for Study Time

Often students run low on funds and don’t like to spend on nutritious foods as sometimes the foods that are good for one’s nutrition might not necessarily be good for their pocket.

Just because one has limited funds doesdoesn’tn they should be sacrificing on their health. Keep in mind that portion control is vital. There are many go-to and affordable snacks for students that will even meet their budget.

Here is a list of healthy foods and snacks that one can afford on any budget.


Bananas are filled with vitamins, fibre and potassium and are a perfect on-the-go snack.

2. Carrots

Carrots are cheap, easy and packed with nutrition like natural carbohydrates, protein, calcium, fibre and potassium. A mini packet of carrots on the go is ideal for snacking between classes.

3. String cheese

Cheese is everyone’s favourite. It is easily transportable and is a combination of salt and sugar; it can curb both your salty and sweet cravings. One stick of cheese is only 80 calories filled with calcium and protein.

4. Oatmeal

High in protein and fibre along with being low in fat and calories is not easy to find; which is why oatmeal is a gem of easy and quick foods. It also tastes good and comes in an instant an option which makes it convenient for on students who are on the go.

5. Green tea

Green tea is an excellent alternative to any of the high-caffeinated options, as it not helps in boosting your energy but also provide antioxidants.

6. Apples

If you are looking for a healthy alternative for your chips and dips, slice up an apple and dip the wedges in some almond butter for a delicious and filling anytime snack. For variety, you can also use any organic sugar-free butter as a great-tasting protein-packed dip.

7. Green vegetables

All of us know about is well aware that we should eat our greens but have you ever thought of taking a bag of raw string beans, pea pods or broccoli on the go as a snack. It would be best if you did it as they have the benefits of antioxidants, Vitamin C and more. When looking for vegetable, always go for the greener ones. The greener and leafier the vegetable is, the better it is.

8. Greek yoghurt

As Greek yoghurt is high on protein but low in sugar, it is a snack will keep you sustained and satisfied. Greek yoghurt is available in various flavours, or you can always add some honey, fruits or granola to jazz up the plain flavour.

9. Peanuts

Peanuts are not nuts but a legume. They are cheap and are filled with protein. Peanuts are high in suitable types of fat and are able to keep you full for a longer time than any snacks that are made with an artificial preservative.

If you consume them in 2-ounce portions, peanuts are nearly 300 calories, but they are a good alternative when you are craving a salty snack when studying.

10. Oranges

Other than the benefit of vitamin C, oranges also give you calcium, potassium, healthy carbohydrates and more vitamins. They are high in sugar but are not as bad as a candy bar.

11. Coffee

Coffee in moderate amounts can help in improving the brain function, attention span and focus time due to the caffeine contained in it. However, it should be consumed in moderation; overconsumption can have adverse results.

12. Peanut butter

Peanut butter is an excellent option as a snack. You can always fix yourself some snack that has peanut butter. Peanut butter is nutritious and also a great purchase.

13. Almonds

A handful of almonds can sustain you for an extended period of time. They are made from healthy fats and are also a good source of protein (in moderation). One ounce of almonds holds 14 grams of fat. It is an excellent option as long as one does not over indulges in it, or one might be finding them with some unwanted weight gain.

14. Hummus

Protein-rich hummus is good on almost anything – especially if one is trying to spice up some vegetables.

15. Whole wheat crackers or Pretzels

Pair it either with peanut butter or hummus and you are good to go. Whole wheat is the crucial element here because you are consuming grains which you lose in white crackers or a regular variety of pretzels.

16. Avocado

Avocado is technically a fruit. It has mono-saturated fats, which help in improving blood flow and can also lower blood pressure. Avocados are also an excellent source for vitamin E. However, make sure that you don’t over-consume them as these are fatty fruits – a quarter or half is more than enough for one serving.

17. Roasted Chickpeas

These are the perfect yet healthy alternative for anyone craving a crunchy snack. Chickpeas are an excellent source of fibre and protein. When roasted in the oven with a bit of salt and chilli powder, they taste delicious.

18. Trail Mix

This might be a tricky one as some unhealthy snacks are disguised ass trail mix. It is suggested to make your own or look for a healthier version with dried fruits and nuts. Portion control is also essential to make sure that you are not consuming a ton of trans-fats.

Foods to Avoid During Studying and Exams

Now that we have talked about what foods items to eat when studying let’s discuss about what food items to avoid during exams. It is essential for students to eat healthily and take care of their mental and physical health.

Unfortunately, most of the traditional student diet is not suitable for the brain during exam time. Below we have provided a list of food items and ingredients that can hinder in your brain and body. Avoid the following food items, and you might have a better chance of concentrating on your studies during your exams.

1.Fried food 

Everyone is aware that fried food is bad for you because of the high levels of cholesterol and high levels of saturated fats. When one is studying and don’t have much time to cook, people prefer ordering some takeout or snacking or any chips can be appealing.

Unfortunately, junk foods, especially fried foods, have an adverse effect on the brain. Dr Martha Clare Morris said that saturated fats and cholesterol could block the blood from entering your brain, reducing its power.

The build-up of these compounds, over a long time period, can lead to dementia and even Alzheimer’s diesease. Especially during your exam sessions, you should avoid fried foods to keep your brain healthy.

Rather have: A long-time diet that is high in folic acid and folate can help in improving memory and promotes slow ageing of the brain. Some food item which is ‘folic-y’ such as beans, citrus fruits, avocado, and lentils are some options you can try.

2. Caffeine 

Coffee is the glorious, well-known energy-producing staple beverage for almost every student. Unfortunately, when you consume coffee or any other drink that has caffeine such as soda or any other energy drink, it has an adverse effect on the brain overdone.

As mentioned earlier in the article, coffee, or any other caffeinated drink should only be consumed at a minimal amount. Caffeine creates energy by blocking the sleep-producing chemical adenosine from entering one’s nerves.

Even though this works for providing a short-term energy boost, the long term effect of this can be harmful. The lack of sleep that is caused by caffeine may cause the body to undergo symptoms related to anxiety-like insomnia, heart palpitation and shaking.

Rather have: Sometimes, all we need is a little hydration. Hydration helps in boosting one’s energy and making us feel awake. When you feel like you cannot continue concentrating anymore, sometimes a little hydration is all you need. Don’t hesitate in chugging back a glass of water or two helping your cells to hydrate and energize.

3. Trans-fats 

One thing one must avoid to keep their brain healthy is foods that are high in trans-fat. A study done in 2012 in Neurology showed that eating large amounts of trans-fat has led to brain shrinkage and less processing power.

According to another study, a diet that is high in trans-fat can increase the risk of depression by up to 48%.

Food items those are high in trans-fat including frozen pizza, microwaved popcorn and coffee creamer. Try are and avoid them, especially if are trying to study and concentrate. If you need something to munch on, you can have any one of the snacks that have been mentioned earlier.

Rather have Food items that are rich in vitamin K, which helps in increasing brain power and cognitive functioning. Green vegetables like broccoli and kale are high on these brain-boosting vitamins.

4. Tuna 

Fish is good for brain functioning, and that has been mentioned earlier. After all, the DHA fatty acid that is found in many fish has been linked to improving memory.

However, since a fresh salmon doesn’t exactly fit in the budget of every student hence tuna is often considered as a viable alternative. This is because it is much cheaper. However, in reality, tuna can severely damage your brain.

Years of industrial pollution have severely polluted and tainted the oceans. As a result of which the higher concentration of mercury has also polluted the tuna that lives in the ocean. A high level of mercury in one’s body negatively affects cognitive functioning and can also damage other major organs like the heart.

Rather have: Other fishes like salmon, mackerel and sardines offer higher levels of fatty acid without as much mercury, giving your brain the required amount of DHA for the brainpower.

5. Sugar 

Sugar even though sometimes stimulates, also hits the brainpower pretty hard. A study done in 2015 proved that mice on a higher sugar and higher fat diet suffered cognitively. Not only was their short-term and long-term memory reduced, but also their ability to solve problems also suffered.

What makes sugar even more unremarkable harmful is how seemingly healthy foods – such as whole-wheat bread, yoghurt, canned tomato sauce, juice and dried fruits ins loaded with these kinds of stuff. So be careful with your food selection.

Rather have: A study showed that blueberries help in improving short-term memory by repairing the damaged nerve cells. This study also showed that spinach and strawberries give the same effect to a lesser effect.

Eating meals that are versatile or maintaining a balanced diet most of the time will help you in studying and concentrating better. This will lead to better results both in long-term and short-term. Even though many brain foods may show immediate results, the best results are the ones that show over time.

Also Read: Tpn nclex questions

5 Ways Reading Improves English | How Reading Improves Your English

Reading Improves English

Reading is almost like an exercise for the brain. It can help in improving your memory and focus. English reading helps in improving grammar, accelerates vocabulary and lets you have a better grip over the language. Reading can help you in learning new words and teaches you things that you didn’t know about.

Reading is a fun activity for many. Some people read to learn, and others just read to relax and have fun. It is always better to read materials that suit your level of understanding. Even though reading only partially impacts your spoken English, it can help you in learning new words, strengthening your passive vocabulary and better your knowledge of English.

Gather Information Regarding Basic English Skills and become proficient in the language and speak fluently with confidence. Try the Tips over here and Improve your English Writing and Speaking Skills.

Always Take Out Suitable Time To Read

Here we have listed down a few ways in which reading can help you in improving your English.

Reading as a fun activity can be done anywhere. You can take a book of your interest and read it when you’re travelling to your destination, in the office, in bed or even in a coffee shop when you’re waiting for a friend. Reading can be enjoyed anywhere and everywhere.

However, if you are reading anything, that will help you in improving your knowledge and comprehension, you must focus in order to study. For this kind of reading, you need to set aside special time. Dedicating time for your reading will allow you to focus without the risk of being interrupted. This time should quiet, and you should be in a place where you can avoid being distracted.

One should try and spend at least 30 minutes every day on focused reading. This will be beneficial in improving your reading skills seriously and successfully. The more you read, the more will you improve.

Try these following steps:

Make your reading procedure a ritual – something that you repeat every time you sit down to focus on reading English. Make the following steps a part of your reading process for you to be able to focus better on your reading.

  • Find a place that is quiet, cosy, comfortable and has proper lighting.
  • Prepare everything that you might need before you sit down to study. Avoid getting up often, which will make you lose your concentration.
  • Put away all your electronics and make sure you don’t touch them before you finish studying. Technology is the worst distracter, and once you lose your concentration because of electronics, it becomes very difficult to focus again.
  • Decide how long you want to read for. It is always better to set a goal that allows you to be mentally prepared.
  • If one has a specific process of preparing to read, then their brain will know when they are about to read, and they will more be focused even before they start.
  • Read The Right Books 

Choosing the correct book to read is one of the most important steps that you must undertake. When choosing a book, you should keep in mind two things – what interests you and what is your level of reading. Sometimes choosing books also depends on what you feel like reading. You can choose from various genres of books such as mystery, thriller, romance, comedy, tragedy, or anything that interests you.

Whenever you can, you should take out time to read things that you enjoy. You must always keep in mind to choose books which suit your level of English – this will make you comfortable to read it. Otherwise, if you choose a book which is not of your level, you might feel boring while reading it or not resonate with what the book is about.

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Try these following steps: 

  • If you are not sure what to read and where to start from, there are a number of websites online where you can find recommendations – this will help you choose your book.
  • If you are a beginner to the language, try and choose books which have an easy language. This will make it easier to understand and keep you hooked to the book.
  • Discover what your areas of interests are. Learn about the genres that you can resonate with the most. This will make the process of reading interesting for you and will make you fall in love with the practice of it.
  • Ask Lots Of Questions 

Asking questions when reading plays a crucial role in understanding the texts for the readers. Asking questions allows one to understand as to why they are reading the text. This practice gives them readers the chance to make predictions about the texts and then, later on, change their thinking.

Asking questions will allow the readers to make connections based on things that they already know about, and it also allows the reader to decide whether the content for good or not. Asking questions gives readers the opportunity to review important information about the text and gives them the chance to clarify their doubts.

Try these following steps: 

One can ask the questions in three different times – before they read when they are reading and after they are done reading. Questions before one start reading require them to take a look at the title of the book, the author and the cover art.

  • The title might give the readers some clue as to what the book might be about – maybe the name of a character, the setting of the text or the genre.
  • If the reader is familiar with the author, it may be helpful for them. Having knowledge about the author’s style may give the reader some prior knowledge or idea as to what the book might hold.
  • The cover often helps readers to have a visual about the text as to about the setting of the text, the characters, the feelings or even a problem.
  • Often the title and the cover art of the book will help the reader in identifying the author’s purpose of writing the text.

Asking questions when a reading helps the reader in focusing their thinking on what the story is about. Is this practise they have a better understanding of the content. One will discover, wonder or question things like the following:

  • The main idea of the text.
  • Plot or theme of the story.
  • Problem and its solution.
  • Characters and how the writer portrays their moods and how their feelings change.
  • What might happen next?

All these questions help in keeping the reader focused on the story, which, in turn, helps their comprehension of the story. These questions are the ones that will keep you hooked on to a book.

After reading a text, you might have a few questions in your mind, such as:

  • Why was the plot of the story the way it was?
  • What inspired the writer to write something like this?
  • Why a certain character did something.
  • Why the author decided to put an end the story in that manner.
  • Which was your favourite part?
  • Which was the part that took you by surprise?
  • Was there any part that made you emotional?

This is also the time to reflect upon the questions asked before and during the reading.

  • Were your questions answered in the book?
  • Can there be a continuation of the book to give an explanation for the unanswered questions?
  • Were they able to reach to an answer when they completed the text?
  • Are there any questions that cannot be answered and don’t need to be answered because it will not help with the understanding of the story?

One might always have various other questions depending on the text that they read; these are a few good ones to start with.

Stay Curious and Follow a Certain Pattern of Reading

The proper way of learning how to read and improve English is more than just reading the words. It is also about processing the information and understanding it. There are a few things one can do before, during and after reading, which will help them to understand the text better.

Before you start to read, browse through the text. Take a quick look over the text without actually reading every word. After you are done reading, take some time to browse again and try to summarise what you read and what you remember. This especially is helpful when you are reading a text, and you need to concentrate. Setting a pattern that suits you will help you in concentrating.

Try these following steps: 

  • Before you start reading, here are a few things that you can look for when browsing through the text.
  • Are there any words in bold or italics?
  • Are there a lot of dialogues?
  • Is there any title or subtitles?
  • What is the size of the paragraphs?
  • After you are done reading, here are a few things that you might want to think about which will help you understand and make you think about what you did or what you did not understand.
  • What was the book about?
  • Are there any parts that confused you?
  • Is there any part of the text that you failed to understand?
  • Did the text interest you?
  • Take time to think about what you read in the text. This will allow you to comprehend and realise how much of it you understood.
  • Try and quickly write or say a few sentences that describe what the text was about.
  • Look for the meaning of words that you did not understand in the text. This will help you in learning a new word and using it in the future.

Following a pattern, every time you read helps your brain to be more prepared and become more alert. In this manner, you become more observant of the text and might have a better understanding of any text that you read.

  • Improve Fluency First

Fluency is how smoothly one can read. When you are reading, in your head, there should be a certain rhythm to words. The words should be flowing together naturally, just like when someone is talking.

Reading fluency is the ability of one to able to read accurately, smoothly and with expression. Fluent readers are able to recognise words automatically, without struggling with any decoding issues – they sound natural as if they are speaking. Whereas, not-fluent readers read slowly and sometimes sound choppy.

Fluency is necessary because it helps in bridging between word recognition and comprehension. On the other hand, non-fluent readers spend more time on decoding, which leaves less time for the comprehension of the text. Often they have to read the same passage several times to attain comprehension.

Improving fluency can be a simple process of choosing slightly easier texts for reading. If one takes time to improve how fluently they read, it will be beneficial for the future. One will be able to improve not only their reading but also their speaking. This will also make your reading process more fun and natural.

Try the following steps: 

Many words that you find when reading are actually ‘sight words’. These are words that one must know about by sight. One should not have to think about how to read these words. Reading sight words can be practised really quickly. You just need to find a list of sight words and take about a minute or two each day to read the words as fast as you can.

If you are unfamiliar with the words, it’s a good idea to look them up beforehand. However, remember that this exercise is about being able to read fluently not understand more. Once you are able to read at a comfortable speed, you can start focusing on the understanding.

Once You’ve Learned To Speed Up, Now Slow Down!

Once you have reached the stage of reading where you are now confident in your English fluency, you can stop worrying about your speed. You can now take time to think about the text and its meaning.

Now that you can read fast, it’s time to read slowly. Take time to really get into the text that you are reading, instead of speeding through it. Reading slowly will give you more time to comprehend what you read and have a better understanding of the text. Reading is not fulfilled until you accomplish the fluency and understand the meaning of the text.

Try these following steps:

One great way in which you will be able to slow yourself down when reading, is to read out loud. Not only will this practice help your reading and understanding skills but also your speaking, listening and pronunciation—the focus of speaking every word loudly, carefully and pronouncing it well.

If you are unable to read out loud, or you don’t want to, you can try pausing after every few paragraphs. This will help you in making sure that you are paying attention. Another very effective way of pacing yourself well is making notes. Write down as you read, this practice will help you in remembering pieces of stuff better.

  • Read It Again 

Sometimes reading a text only once is not enough to be able to understand it wholly. This is always true when one is reading something difficult – or even if you are not. Reading something more than once can help you in understanding it much more.

Re-reading is a beneficial practice for those times when you read the words but get them to make sense. There have been times when re-reading a text, and one finds a completely different meaning of a situation or a dialogue. Sometimes even people are able to understand something that they couldn’t earlier.

This practice is also an excellent way of finding out the thing that you missed for the first time. If the text has any new words, you will notice them again every time you read; this will help you in remembering them.

Try these following steps:

Choose a small area that you want to read, not more than a few paragraphs. This could be a news article or a story, anything that you want – as long as you are interested in the text.

Read the article at the pace which is suitable for you. Then write down everything that you can remember from the article that you just read. Write down every single detail that you can remember. Even write down parts of sentences if you can remember them.

Now, repeat the process.

Read that article again. Write down everything that you remember again. You will notice for yourself that how much you can remember the second time around. Every time you some time, you have a better understanding of it. If you are looking forward to getting the most out of your reading, try and read three or more times.

The first time you read, focus on understanding the words. The second time around, focus on the meaning, make sure that the second you go slower in your reading process. Start asking yourself deeper questions such as ‘what inspired the writer to write this?’ or ‘has this text impacted the lives and mind-sets of people?’

Read Various Kinds Of Texts

In today’s world, we don’t just read books or newspapers. We also read emails, blogs, Tweets and even texts. The more you spend time reading anything in English, the more understand you will have of the language.

Don’t just read books or newspapers to try and read anything and everything. Find anything that interests you like a magazine that you might enjoy, visit a blog that like reading, or follow people or websites of your interest on various social media platforms. Whatever you choose to read, remember the more you practise, the better you’ll get.

Try these following steps:

  • If you have trouble in discovering new things to read, there are a number of websites that take news and other interesting articles and put them together for you to look through. These websites are a great place to be able to find things that suit your areas of interest.
  • Explore new texts that are out of your comfort zone. If you have a particular kind of genre that you enjoy reading or a particular writer that you always stick to try and explore more types of genres and writers. You can always start with similar ones and slowly move to new types.

Follow these steps in your process of improving English. You might suddenly discover that you are reading and understanding better not only this language but also your native language.

Here are A Few Tips For Reading: 

  1. Often people find reading original novels in English intimidating to read. If you have the same feeling, then you must try and watch the movie first. Often popular books have been adapted into a film version. Watching the movie will give you a basic understanding of the storyline. It also a great practise in improving your pronunciations and vocabulary.
  1. Most novels are available in the form of an audiobook. If you feel like reading takes too much time, then you can try to listen to an audiobook when driving, or cooking or relaxing.
  1. Try to read a book that has dual language. Dual language books have the original English text on one page and the translation into the language of your choice on the other. This will give you a chance at quickly referring to your language if you fail to understand the English text.
  1. Take time in analysing the language of the book. Always keep an eye on how the writer uses words and constructions in English. Novels use both formal as well as informal languages. These languages are often used in everyday life.
  1. When you have taken time to finish your novel, it’s time for you to choose the next one. If you feel confident with where you stand, try and choose a more advanced book. Reading books that have been written by the same author can make your life easier. However, trying new authors will help you in learning about yourself and your interests.
  1. If you are reading a fairly old book, you may find words or phrases that might not be in use today. Try to look for the phrase on the web to see if it is still popular and in use in modern English.

How Can Literature Help You In Improving Your English?

If one is looking forward to becoming more fluent in English, they must keep pushing themselves. Reading original English books is an excellent way of doing it. Even if you are an intermediate English reader, by using simple novels and books, you can make good progress.

Let’s take a look as to how reading can help in improving English:

  • Real English – Modern novels and books showcase real examples of how English is used today. Textbooks, however, do not always do this as they are written in a simpler manner for non-narratives. Novels can also teach you how to express ideas, show emotions, and tell a story in English. Literature can also be used to find examples of realistic conversations between native people.
  • Accuracy –There a great authors who are masters of the language English. They use the perfect style and form in their writing. For you to improve your grammar and written English, there is no better teacher compared to a good book. When you start reading books regularly, you begin to understand English more through passive learning.
  • Vocabulary –Even if you are someone who speaks English well, there is always more than you can learn. A good novel will not only be simple and easy to understand but also will introduce you to new words. Reading books and novels will give you the chance to learn vocabulary in the context of a story. This implies you will have a better understanding of how words and phrases are used in everyday conversations.
  • Interaction –When you read a novel or a book in English, you are spending time interacting with the language. Many books have several layers of meanings which can be understood in different ways. When you are able to start developing your thoughts and opinions on a story, you are able to create a personal relationship with the language.
  • Reward –Reading a novel might seem like a lot of work. However, it is one of the most rewarding ways in which you can improve your English. When you read a novel, you use English to achieve your goal. In other words, you are reading and at the same time translating in order to be able to understand and enjoy the story. If you use English as a practical tool in this way, you are one step closer to fluency.

10 Simple Novels in English for You To Read

As mentioned earlier in the article, choosing the right kind of book that suits your area of interest and matches your level of English is one of the most vital steps. Here we have listed five novels for you to choose from which will give you a head start in your reading journey.

1. Harry Potter – JK Rowling 

Harry Potter is a book that everyone has heard about even if they have not read it. or at least seen the films. These books are a must-read for every English student who enjoys reading fantasy novels. The series has seven books, and these books get progressively longer and more advanced in its English. It is always better, to begin with, the first.

2. The Wind in the Willows 

The Wind in the Willows, authored by Kenneth Grahame, is a classic tale that takes place in the English countryside sharing the adventures of the animals that live by the river. The author’s imaginative stories with the use of simple language make this book a pleasurable read for both children as well as adults.

3. The Old Man and the Sea 

The Old Man and the Sea, authored by Ernest Hemingway, is the story of an old Cuban fisherman trying to chase the biggest catch of his life. All on his own, and miles out to sea, he fights a battle with the fish for several days.

The book throws light over many themes, such as ‘man vs. nature’ as well as the idea of masculinity. The way that this book deals with these themes is what makes it one of the most famous and successful novels that have been written in English.

4. Empty World – John Christopher 

In the novel, when Nick’s parents die in a car crash, he moves to live with his grandparents. Shortly after his move, a deadly virus spreads across the world, killing most of the population. Nick is left alone, and he has to survive in a lonely and empty world.

The language used in the novel Empty World is simple as it has been written for a teenage audience. However, the novel is disturbing, dark and thought-provoking as any adult book. Although the book might be easy to read, it is also one of those books which will keep you thinking.

5. Lord of the Flies by William Golding

The Lord of the Flies, written by author William Goulding, is a modern classic novel. It is also a popular one to be read at school. Lord of the Flies begins with a plane crash that leaves a group of boys marooned on an island. On being left alone on that island, they elect their leader and create a society.

Things start going downhill, and war for leadership begins. The boys turn rebellious and for two rival tribes. This results in panic fear, and death. This book will make you think about the nature of humans and question yourself.

6. About a Boy – Nick Hornby 

Nick Hornby, the writer of the book, is one of the most popular modern English authors. Many of his books have made it as the bestsellers that have also been adapted into popular movies. About a Boy is also one of them.

It is a funny story about an immature man who behaves like a boy and a serious young boy who behaves like a man. They are opposites in a number of ways; but, they become friends and help each other in understanding their hearts.

The most amazing thing about this novel is that it teaches both formal as well as informal English. Hornby writes his novels with a lot of energy. This makes his books exciting to read. In this extract, he has shown the cynical way the main character sees the world – which implies he does not trust people’s intentions.

7. High Fidelity – Nick Hornby 

A must-read for any music lover, High Fidelity is another book by Nick Hornby. It is a modern story in which a casual style of language has been used, and it has been written from the point of view of the main character, Rob. Rob is a heartbroken vinyl record store owner who lives in north London. The story has a quick-pace fell along with short and funny conversations between characters that keep the story moving.

8. 1984 – George Orwell 

George Orwell holds a special place in the hearts of many British people. There is even a prize that has been named after him – the Orwell Prize. It is awarded to the best political writing across the world.

1984 is a novel that is based on an imaginary and unpleasant world. It is the opposite of a ‘utopia’, which is an imaginary perfect society. It was released in the year 1948 and looked forward towards a future where dictators are running the world, and everyone is constantly being monitored.

9. To Kill a Mockingbird 

To Kill a Mockingbird, by author Harper Lee, is a classic American novel that many students have used in the US in middle schools and high school. The novel was published in 1960 and was an instant success.

The book has been set in the United States and is based on a crime in a small, rural town and its repercussions. The plot of the book and the characters have loosely been based on Lee’s observation of her family, her neighbours and an event that occurs near her hometown Monroeville, Alabama in the year 1936 when she was ten. The novel became a classic of modern American literature and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize.

10. The Great Gatsby 

The writer of the book, F. Scott Fitzgerald, is an example of how poetic you can be with the English language. Set in the 1920s of America, this novel looks at the idea of love and the American Dream. This book is one of the best-selling books ever written in English.

Even though this book is comparatively harder than the books mentioned, you can learn many new words from this book. Fitzgerald uses images and a wide range of vocabulary to bring out the beauty of the language. This book may be a little complicated in places, and beginners are suggested not to start with this book. For the people who have a better understanding of the language, this book will keep you turning pages.

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NCERT Books for Class 12 Maths Chapter 13 Probability

NCERT Books for Class 12 Maths Chapter 13 Probability PDF Download

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Class 12 Maths Chapter 13 Probability NCERT Book PDF Download

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NCERT Books for Class 12 Maths Chapter 12 Linear Programming

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