Professional Ethics Notes and Free Study Material PDF Download

Professional Ethics Notes: Learning about only technical and scientific topics in engineering courses is not enough. We also need to know how to behave, what kind of behaviour is moral and acceptable, and other similar nuances of acting professionally when it comes to working in an office.

Life does not end with the end of our engineering course, right? We need to carry what we have learnt in the course forth into the places we are hired to work and utilise our skills. In these workplaces, Professional Ethics are extremely important to follow, and that’s why it is important to learn while in an educational institution.

Today, we will be focusing on providing you with a number of resources to make sure that you are well versed in the branch of Professional Ethics. The following is a list of the same that we have provided below in the article.

  • Professional Ethics reference books
  • Professional Ethics curriculum
  • List of Professional Ethics important questions
  • Frequently asked questions about Professional Ethics
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Professional Ethics Notes Free PDF Download

Professional Ethics is a subject which is an invariable part of every subject, be it management, law, engineering, or any other professional course. It is the subject which delves into moral codes of conduct, or in other words, the standards of behaviour that is expected from individuals in a professional setting. Professional settings here refer to workplaces, educational institutions, etc.

It is important to have studied Professional Ethics and to have had it be ingrained into your head and your value system before you enter a workspace. In the workplace, people value and respect an employee who follows all the appropriate Professional Ethics, thus, it is imperative to study and understand the subject very well. Aside from this, those who refuse to follow Professional Ethics are generally penalised or reprimanded for the same.

Below is a list of various Professional Ethics Notes for you to rely on while studying the subject. They are an important tool and asset for every individual enrolled in an educational course with the intent to move forward for a job later on.

  • Professional Ethics in Engineering (PEE) Lecture Notes
  • Professional Ethics – PE Study Materials | PDF Free
  • Professional Ethics and Human Values, Study Material & Notes PDF
  • Notes for Professional Ethics – PE
  • Professional Ethics Lecture Notes

BE Professional Ethics Notes PDF Free Download

Values and Professional Ethics are somewhat similar to each other, in the sense that they both govern how an individual should behave. However, the difference is that values are inbuilt and more personal, while Professional Ethics are standard for all persons alike.

Some suitable Professional Ethics are:

  • Honesty
  • Accountability
  • Trustworthiness
  • Loyalty
  • Mutual respect
  • Transparency
  • Obedience to rules
  • Confidentiality where required

Professional Ethics Reference Books

Now that we have understood the gist of what all the subject of Professional Ethics entails, let’s take our first dive into the resources available to study the same.

The following is a list of Professional Ethics reference books:

  • Ethics in Engineering written by Mike Martin and Rolan Schinzinger
  • Engineering Ethics written by Charles Fleddermann
  • Engineering Ethics – Concepts and Cases written by Michael Pritchard and Michael Rabins
  • Ethical Choices in Business written by R.C. Sekhar
  • Engineering Ethics written by Pinkus, Shulman, Phummon and Wolfe
  • Internet Ethics written by Duncan Lanford
  • Professional Ethics and Human Values written by Jayakumar
  • Professionalism and Ethics in Teaching written by David Carr
  • Professional Ethics and Civic Moral written by Emile Durkheim
  • Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases, Fifth Edition written by Manuel Velasquez
  • Professional Ethics (includes Human Values) written by R. Subramanian
  • Encyclopaedia of Business and Professional Ethics written by Deborah Poff and Alex Michalos

Professional Ethics Curriculum

Unit Topics
Ethics, Applied Ethics & Professional Ethics
  • Nature
  • Scope
  • Theories of ethics
  • Principles of ethics
Business Ethics
  • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
  • On Teaching CSR
  • Sustainable employee & customer relations
  • Sustainable relations between competitors & suppliers
  • Sustainable production & green business
  • Corporate citizenship & Government
Medical Ethics & Bioethics
  • Nature
  • Harm Principle and Risk-Benefit analysis
  • Beneficence and Respecting rights
  • Respecting autonomy & informed consent
  • Social justice
  • Health & Disease
    • Different models
    • Public health & obligations
    • Underlying determinants of health
    • Drug trials
    • Special ethical challenges of infectious diseases
Engineering Ethics
  • Responsible engineering
  • Safety
  • Risk management
Media Ethics
  • Media ethics and media economics
    • Who owns media?
  • Ethics of journalism
    • Debates on truth, privacy, stereotypes, values
  • Media and democracy
    • Freedom of Speech vs Censorship
    • The violence of silence
Legal Ethics
  • Ethics and values in legislation
  • Code of conduct for lawyers
Teaching Ethics/Value Education
  • Value of values
  • Transformation in values

List of Professional Ethics Important Questions

Answering Professional Ethics important questions will not only allow you to truly ingrain and understand what professional ethics are in the true sense of the subject, but this will also give you an idea of what kind of questions will turn up in the exam paper.

Preparing well for an examination includes solving important questions for the subject as well. You know you are fully prepared for an examination when you can effortlessly answer all the important questions without any hesitation or doubt.

Here is a list of Professional Ethics important questions.

  1. Define work ethics.
  2. What is honesty? List out any 2 aspects of honesty.
  3. List down some civic virtues.
  4. What is cooperation? How is it different from competition?
  5. What are human values?
  6. Explain the importance of self confidence in professional ethics.
  7. List down important time wasters and also discuss how one can manage time properly.
  8. Explain commitment, empathy, accountability and integrity.
  9. Write a detailed note on work ethics.
  10. What are some important engineering ethics?

Frequently Asked Questions about Professional Ethics

Q1. What is the importance of Professional Ethics?

A1. Professional Ethics are what every individual needs to learn before going to get a job anywhere. Professional Ethics can be applied under any industry, whether it is the medical industry, law, business, engineering, media, and even in teaching positions in educational institutions.

By Professional Ethics, we are referring to the standards of behaviour that each individual must follow in the workplace, and the maintenance of morals in the workplace by individuals. This is incredibly important because implementing it allows a certain decorum to be maintained in the professional sphere.

Q2. How do I use Professional Ethics Notes?

A2. In the article above, we have provided you with a set of Professional Ethics Notes to help you study for when you have an exam for this subject. The best way to use the Professional Ethics Notes is by putting it together with the Professional Ethics reference books, Professional Ethics curriculum and the list of Professional Ethics important questions. We have provided all of these resources above as well, along with the Professional Ethics Notes.

For the best use, use the Professional Ethics curriculum to create a good schedule for studying. After this, use the Professional Ethics Notes and reference books to become thorough with the subject. Once you feel that you are well prepared, try solving the important questions which we have also provided above. This process will help you best utilise the resources that we have provided for you.

Q3. What is the basic Professional Ethics curriculum?

A3. The Professional Ethics curriculum is divided into several parts, and it discusses the different forms of ethics in different industries. The following is the simple and unit-wise breakdown of the curriculum.

  1. Ethics, Applied Ethics & Professional Ethics
  2. Business Ethics
  3. Medical and Bioethics
  4. Engineering Ethics
  5. Media Ethics
  6. Legal Ethics
  7. Teaching Ethics/Value Education

Q4. What are some good Professional Ethics reference books?

A4. Some good Professional Ethics reference books are as follows (in no particular order).

  1. Engineering Ethics – Concepts and Cases written by Michael Pritchard and Michael Rabins
  2. Professional Ethics (includes Human Values) written by R. Subramanian
  3. Business Ethics: Concepts and Cases, Fifth Edition written by Manuel Velasquez
  4. Encyclopaedia of Business and Professional Ethics written by Deborah Poff and Alex Michalos


Now that we have provided you with all the necessary resources to prepare well for exams in Professional Ethics, we hope that the Professional Ethics Notes, reference books, curriculum and important questions have helped serve your purpose. You must go through all of these and study the subject thoroughly to score great marks and also be well versed in Professional Ethics. Just remember, the better you fare in Professional Ethics, the better adjusted you will be in whichever job you get hired!

Engineering Chemistry Notes and Study Materials PDF Free Download

Engineering Chemistry Notes: Here, aspiring students can find study material and notes for Engineering Chemistry which can help them in preparation for any upcoming exams in the subject. These notes can help students in understanding the basics of the subject and then being able to put use in different applied scenarios. This article will give the aspirant the right amount of information to be able to have a thorough preparation for an upcoming exam in the subject.

Engineering Chemistry Notes provides a compilation of various notes on the subject which will help students score the best grade in the subject by providing the best material and reference books for students to prepare better. Here in this article, students will acquire the latest syllabus to refer, the most recommended books and a list of important questions.

By using Engineering Chemistry notes, aspiring students can identify a good structure on how to start their preparation process for the subject.

  • Engineering Chemistry reference books
  • Engineering Chemistry curriculum
  • List of Engineering Chemistry questions
  • FAQs on engineering Chemistry notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Engineering Chemistry Notes

Engineering Chemistry is a subject that involves the use of science, mathematics and economics to better use materials and energy so that converting organisms, raw material, chemicals into efficient forms of products or some different forms. The subject is very broad and consists of studying thermodynamics, electro-chemicals, organic chemistry, transport phenomena and reaction kinetics.

The study of these various subjects can help engineering Chemistry to understand the design of large scale plants and be able to branch out into their field of choice which are chemical diagnostics, alternative energy and process synthesis. Engineering Chemistry Notes and Study Material Pdf Free Download

Students studying their Bachelors in Technology can get the most up to date notes on Engineering Chemistry and other study material in this article. Here students are provided with the best resources required to study the subject in depth; thereby, they will be better equipped for their exams. The notes provided are always free and easy to download, thereby allowing aspirants always to be able to access them whenever required. By using notes during last-minute preparation or during revision can be helpful to students as it summarizes most of the subject in a brief format, thereby allowing students to grasp the most out of it.

Given below is the list of notes for Engineering chemistry for a thorough preparation of the programme-

  • Engineering Chemistry notes 1st-year free download
  • Engineering Chemistry textbook by Jain and Jain
  • Engineering Chemistry handwritten notes free
  • Engineering chemistry second semester(notes) pdf
  • Questions for Engineering chemistry

Engineering Chemistry Reference Books

The reference books provided by this article gives students the best material to fact check their queries and understand the subject with the right information. Here in this article, the books provided by experts allow students to thorough down on their basic concepts. Here Aspirants can use these reference books and study material during their time of preparation to score their desired grades.

The following is the updated list of reference books required for Engineering Chemistry-

  • Shikha Agarwa “Engineering Chemistry
  • Engineering Chemistry of Wiley India Pvt. Ltd. 2nd edition 2014.
  • Prasanth Rath “Engineering Chemistry”, 2015 edition.
  • ”A textbook of Engineering Chemistry”S. S. Dara; S. Chand & Co
  • Applied Chemistry by H.D. Gesser, Springer Publishers
  • B.S. Murthy, P. Shankar, B. Siva Shankar, Textbook of Nanoscience and nanotechnology
  • S. S. Dara, Mukkanti, “Text of Engineering Chemistry”,
  • Chemistry of Engineering Materials Wiley India, C. V. Agarwal, C. P. Murthy, A. Naidu 5th Edition, 2013.
  • Chemistry of Engineering Materials,R. P. Mani, K. N. Mishra

Engineering Chemistry Curriculum

This subject is very broad, and it includes almost every concept in science as it contributes to some part of it so for students to know what to study and what not to study is crucial because we don’t want them wasting their preparation time on topics that won’t be included in their exam. A curriculum is the most important part of students preparation process as it provides a structure or a format for them to cover the various topics in the subject, therefore, it is key that the curriculum starts from the basic concepts to cover all the relevant topics. The following is an updated curriculum that is set by experts in the field-



  • Introduction- Mechanism of polymerization – Stereoregular polymers – methods of polymerization (emulsion and suspension) -Physical and mechanical properties
  • Plastics as engineering materials: advantages and limitations –Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics – Compounding and fabrication (4/5 techniques)- Preparation, properties, and applications of polyethylene, PVC, Bakelite Teflon, and polycarbonates
  • Elastomers:- Natural rubber- compounding and vulcanization
  • Synthetic rubbers: Buna S, Buna N, Thiokol, and polyurethanes – Applications of elastomers. Composite materials & Fiber Reinforced plastic Biodegradable polymers –Conducting polymers.
  • Fuels – Introduction Classification – Calorific value – HCV and LCV
  • Dulong’s formula – Bomb calorimeter – Numerical problems
  • Coal –– Proximate and supreme analysis – Significance of the analyses
  • Liquid fuels – Petroleum- Refining – Cracking – Synthetic petrol –Petrol knocking – Diesel knocking – Octane and Cetane ratings – Anti-knock agents – Power alcohol – Biodiesel –
  • Gaseous fuels – gas , LPG and CNG –Combustion
  • Calculation of air for the combustion of fuel – Flue gas analysis – Orsat apparatus
  • Numerical problems on combustion. Explosives:- Rocket fuels
  • Galvanic cells:– Reversible and irreversible cells – Single electrode potential – Electro Chemical series and uses of this series- Standard electrodes (Hydrogen and Calomel electrodes) Concentration Cells – Batteries: Dry Cell – Ni-Cd cells – Ni-Metal hydride cells – Li cells – Zinc – Air cells.
  • Corrosion:- Definition – Theories of Corrosion (chemical & electrochemical) – Formation of galvanic cells by different metals, by concentration cells, by differential aeration and waterline corrosion – Passivity of metals – Pitting corrosion – Galvanic series – Factors which influence the speed of corrosion – Protection from corrosion – Design and material selection – Cathodic protection – Protective coatings: – Surface preparation – Metallic (cathodic and anodic) coatings – Methods of application on metals (Galvanizing, Tinning, Electroplating, Electroless plating)
  • Nanomaterials:- Introduction – Sol-gel method & chemical reduction method of preparation – Characterization by BET method and TEM methods – Carbon Nano Tubes and fullerenes: Types, preparation, properties, and applications
  • Liquid crystals:- Introduction – Types – Applications
  • Superconductors:- Type –I, Type II – Characteristics and applications Green synthesis:- Principles – 3or 4 methods of synthesis with examples – R4M4 principles
  • Hard water:- Reasons for hardness – units of hardness – determination of hardness and alkalinity – Water for steam generation – Boiler troubles – Priming and Foaming, Scale formation, Boiler corrosion
  • Caustic embrittlement – Internal treatments
  • Softening of Hard water: Lime – Soda process, Zeolite process and numerical problems supported these processes and natural process process
  • Water for drinking purposes- Purification – Sterilization and disinfection: Chlorination, Breakpoint chlorination and other methods – Reverse Osmosis and Electro Dialysis.
  • Refractories:– Definition, characteristics, classification, properties, failure of refractories
  • Lubricants: – Definition, Function, Theory, and mechanism of lubricants,properties (Definition and importance)
  • Cement:– Constituents, manufacturing, hardening and setting, deterioration of cement
  • Insulators:– Thermal and electrical insulators
  • Fuel cells:– Hydrogen Oxygen fuel cells – Methanol Oxygen fuel cell

List of Engineering Chemistry Important Questions

Here students will find the below questions of importance if they are pursuing their

  1. Write a note on the conditions leading to the failure of refractory material.
  2. Write a note on lubricants with special reference to their classification, mode of action, examples, and applications.
  3. What is the Alkalinity of water due to and how it is estimated?
  4. How are the refractories classified? Give one example for each class.
  5. What is coal? How is it formed? Discuss the qualities of good coal.
  6. Give an account of the production of petrol from crude oil.
  7. Give the Classification of coal and explain each class with examples.
  8. What are the drawbacks of raw rubber? How are its properties improved?
  9. Define the calorific values of a fuel. Distinguish gross and net calorific value.
  10. What are Refractories? Explain Thermal spalling, strength and porosity of the refractories.
  11. What are the two theories for the mechanism of the lubricants and explain them
  12. (a) Boundary lubrication
  13. (b) Extreme pressure lubrication.
  14. 2 litres of water obtained from a borewell in Patancheru near Bangalore gave the following analysis for salts :- FeSO4 = 30.4 mg; CaSO4 = 13.6mg; MgCl2 = 38 mg; Ca(HCO3)2 = 32.4 mg; Mg(HCO3)2 = 14.6mg; NaCl = 11.7 mg.
  15. Describe the Orsat gas analysis method,With a neat diagram. What is the special precaution to be taken in the measurement?
  16. Name the different Constituents of petroleum? Write a note on the Origin of petroleum.
  17. What is meant by the “softening” of water?
  18. In the Zeolite Process how is softening of water carried out ?
  19. The analysis of fuel gases was found to contain the following percentage by Volume CO2=13%, O2 =6%. Find the air per kg of coal if the carbon content of coal is 85%.
  20. Assume that the lime used is only 85% pure and soda is only 95% pure and the molar masses of Mg(HCO3)2 and CaSO4 are respectively 146 and 136

FAQs on Engineering Chemistry Notes

Question 1

What is Engineering Chemistry?


Engineering Chemistry is a subject that involves the use of science, mathematics and economics to better use materials and energy so that converting organisms, raw material, chemicals into efficient forms of products or some different forms. The subject is very broad and consists of studying thermodynamics, electro-chemicals, organic chemistry, transport phenomena and reaction kinetics.

Question 2

What are some important questions for Engineering Chemistry?


  • Give the Classification of coal and explain each class with examples.
  • What are the drawbacks of raw rubber? How are its properties improved?
  • Define the calorific values of a fuel. Distinguish gross and net calorific value.
  • What are Refractories? Explain Thermal spalling, strength and porosity of the refractories.


What are some recommended books for Engineering Chemistry for first year students?


The following is a list of books recommended by experts.

Aspen Plus: Chemical Engineering Applications.

The Engineering Of Chemical Reactions.

Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering Solution Manual 5th Edition


The information given in this article on Engineering Chemistry is very reliable and mostly expert given recommendations on the various books and notes. Students can use these notes to ace their exams and get the grades they desire.

Internet Programming Notes Pdf Free Download

Internet Programming Notes: Are you searching all over to get a hold of the Internet Programming Notes? This article provides the best and credible notes and study materials you can access for your preparation process of all the essential concepts.

The Internet Programming Notes and Study Materials are an essential source of study material that foster and enhance better preparation and helps you procure good grades. Graduates can avail the best Internet Programming Notes as per the latest syllabus update from this article.

Internet Programming Notes and Study Materials give students a head start as to what they will also acquire from the updated Syllabus, Notes, Reference Books, and Study Materials for Internet Programming course programme over regular class notes. Students can avail and download Internet Programming Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download from this article.

  • Internet Programming Reference Books
  • Internet Programming Updated Syllabus
  • List of Internet Programming Important Questions
  • FAQs on Internet Programming Notes
  • Conclusion

Introduction to Internet Programming Notes

The Internet is a vast network of servers and computers that knits the whole world together. Internet Application is a publicly available application or can be a creation through an intranet application.

Internet Programming refers to markup, coding, and writing presupposed in Web development inclusive of server scripting, web content, network security, and a web client. The most common Computer languages involved in Internet programming are JavaScript, XML, PHP, HTML, and Perl-5.

Web service is a server or client process that builds interaction between a server and client. Internet Programming provides web service in two divisions- Server-side programming and Client-side Programming.

Server-side Programming defines the operation that is performed by the server, while Client-side Programming defines the functions performed on the client’s machine.

CSC Internet Programming Notes and Study Material PDF Free Download

Students pursuing CSC can avail from the Internet Programming Notes, and Study Material briefed in this article. Graduates can build up your preparation through the Internet Programming Notes as they act as the ultimate tool to help you secure a higher rank.

Students can download the study material and notes relating to Internet Programming and refer to them during the preparation process. Reference and utilisation of the Internet Programming Notes and Study Materials will assist graduates in getting a better idea of all the essential concepts and changing their score game.

Here, are a list of a few critical Internet Programming Notes PDFs you can download and refer for a thorough preparation of the course programme-

  • Internet Programming Fifth Semester Notes for CSE PDFs
  • Internet Programming Notes PDFs
  • Internet Programming Handwritten Notes PDFs
  • Internet Programming Question Paper PDFs
  • Internet Programming PPT Notes PDF
  • Internet Programming previous Years Question Paper Solutions PDFs

Internet Programming Reference Books

Books are a rich source of information. They contain well-researched and detailed descriptions written by subject experts in the respective field. However, students must ensure to consult the reference books that provide excellent conceptual background before getting a hold of them. Graduates can avail the best books for Internet Programming as per the subject expert’s recommendations from this article and can refer to these books and study materials during your preparation.

The list of best and highly recommended books for Internet Programming course programme are as follows, and graduates should ensure to select the text that meets their knowledge and prepare accordingly.

  1. Java- The Complete Reference by Patrick Naughton and Herbert Schildt
  2. Murach’s ASP.NET Core MVC by Joel Murach and Mary Delamater
  3. C# Programming by Barbara Doyle
  4. Java for Dummies Book by Barry A Burd
  5. Head First Html-5 Programming Book by Eric Freeman and Elisabeth Robson
  6. Oracle 11G- PL/SQL Programming by Joan Casteel
  7. Inside the Microsoft Build Engine by Sayed Ibrahim Hashimi and William Bartholomew
  8. Learning PHP, MySQL and JavaScrip by Robyn Nixon
  9. Programming with Microsoft Visual Basics by Diane Zak
  10. Book on Programming the World Wide Web by Robert W Sebesta
  11. The Eleventh Edition of Java-A Complete Reference by Herbert Schildt
  12. Head First JavaScript by Michael Morrison
  13. Internet and World-wide Web and How to Programme by Harvey Deitel and Associates, and Harvey Deitel
  14. Software Engineering for Internet Application by Eve Astrid Andersson and Philip Greenspun
  15. UNIX Network Programming by W Richard Stevens

Internet Programming Updated Syllabus

The best way to make your preparation effective is with an initial idea and a basic overview of the Internet Programming Syllabus. The syllabus is a course planning tool that helps you prepare, structure, and organise your study materials and notes. Keeping in mind every student’s requirements, we have provided a detailed view of the Internet Programming latest and updated syllabus.

Course Syllabus will give you a clear idea of what to study, how to learn, the list of all essential articles and more, and the unit-wise breakup of the syllabus will give students a comprehensive understanding of each unit and enough time to prepare each topic.

Students should cover all the essential topics before attempting the Internet Programming exam so that the paper is reasonably accessible at the time of the exam. It would help if you also stayed aware and updated of the Internet Programming Syllabus as it prevents you from squandering unnecessary time on redundant topics.

The updated unit-wise breakup of the Internet Programming Syllabus is as follows-

Unit Topics
UNIT IJava Programming
  • Introduction And an Overview of Java
  • Introduction to Threads
  • Interfaces and Inner Classes
  • Arrays and Variable
  • Classes
  • Applets
  • Multithreading
  • Data Types
  • Abstract Classes
  • Control statements
  • Exception Handling
  • Operators
  • Methods
  • String Handling
  • Objects
  • Packages
  • Methods
  • Stream and I/O
  • Inheritance
UNIT IIWebsite Basics, CSS-3, Web 2.0, and HTML-5
  • Understanding Web servers and Websites- An Understanding of the Internet
  • Understanding the Difference between Intranet and Internet; CSS and HTML- XHTML, CSS-3, and HTML-5.0
  • Collaboration Tools
  • An Overview of Internet Technologies
  • Web 2.0- A Basic Introduction and RIA Rich Internet Applications
UNIT IIIServer Side and Client Side Programming
  • Event Handling
  •  JSP- An Understanding of Java Server Pages
  • JavaScript- An Introduction to JavaScript
  • Understanding Cookies
  • Creation of HTML forms by embedding the JSP code
  • Servlet Life Cycle
  • JavaScript DOM Model
  • JSTL- JSP Standard Tag Library
  • Exception Handling
  • Session Handling
  • Date and Objects
  • POST Actions and Form GET
  • Database Connectivity- JDBC Perspectives and Program example
  • Built-in Objects
  • Regular Expressions
  •  DHTML with JavaScript
  • Servlets- An Introduction to Java Servlet Architecture
  • Validation
  • Configuration and Installation of Apache tomcat Web Server
  • Using Cookies- XML- XML Parsers and Validation, XSLT Transformation and XSL, and News Feed (ATOM and RSS), Presenting XML, Basics of XML, XML Schema DOM, Document Type Definition, and Presenting XML; Regular Expressions
  • An Introduction to PHP- Programme Control, Connection to Database, PHP, Variables, and Built-in Functions.
UNIT VIntroduction to Web Services and Ajax 
  • SOAP
  • AJAX- XML-HTTP-Request Object, Callback Methods, AJAX Client-Server Architecture
  • Web Services- An Introduction, Java Web Services and Basics: Describing a Web service, Creating, Testing, and Publishing; Consuming Web Services, and Database Driven Web Service from an Application

List of Internet Programming Important Questions

Candidates pursuing the CSC course programme can go through the list of all the crucial questions for the Internet Programming course programme. All the given important questions aim to help the candidates to excel in the examination. However, candidates must ensure to refer and practice the questions to secure good grades.

  • Demonstrate the creation of a two-dimensional array using Java.
  • Briefly explain with a neat-labelled example on the enhanced features in HTML 5.0
  • Elucidate on Intranet, Internet, and Extranet.
  • Demonstrate a detailed description of the RIA Architecture and also state the Merits and Demerits
  • Write a short note on Multithreaded Programming
  • Write a short on Abstract Classes and Packages in Java
  • Define Polymorphism in Java and elucidate its support in Java
  • Design a Java Program using Applets and Write a short note about it.
  • Differentiate between Overriding Method and Overloading Methods
  • Discuss and write a program in HTML using Font tags, Hyperlink tags, and Image tag.
  • Differentiate between Output Stream and Input Streams and their Classes along with examples.
  • Design a webpage using background-image property using XHTML code
  • Differentiate between HTML and XHTML

FAQs on Internet Programming Notes

Question 1.

Write a brief on Internet Programming?


Internet Programming refers to markup, coding, and writing presupposed in Web development inclusive of server scripting, web content, network security, and a web client. The most common Computer languages involved in Internet programming are JavaScript, XML, PHP, HTML, and Perl-5.

Question 2.

Why is programming necessary on an everyday basis?


Programming increases and enhances the power of the Internet and computers. It is an essential factor that speeds the input and output processes in a machine, a factor that manages, automates, analyses, collects and calculates the processing of information and data accurately.

Question 3.

What are the essential concepts present under the Web Service topic?


A few of the essential topics covered under the web service topic are- An Introduction to Web Services, Java Web Services and Basics: Description of a Web service, Creation, Testing, and Publication; Consuming Web Services, and Database Driven Web Service from an Application.

Question 4.

Name a few best and highly recommended books for Internet Programming.


  • Java for Dummies Book by Barry A Burd
  • Head First Html-5 Programming Book by Eric Freeman and Elisabeth Robson
  • Book on Programming the World Wide Web by Robert W Sebesta
  • The Eleventh Edition of Java-A Complete Reference by Herbert Schildt


This article provides a credible and detailed description of Internet Programming Notes. Graduates struggling for Reference Materials, Notes, Books or other Study Materials can avail and refer to this article to deepen your knowledge and understanding of the subject matter during the time of examination. This article provides detailed briefs on Internet Programming Notes, Reference Books, Study Materials, and Important Questions.

Multiple Bus Organisation Notes

Notes for Multiple Bus Organization: This is the best article to access all the lecture notes and study materials for Multiple Bus Organization topics. The topic is an important part of the subject of Computer Organization and architecture. To understand it well, a student must also properly understand all the concepts of the main subject.

The notes and reference books have in-depth descriptions, starting from the basic topics like the register transfer language, addition and subtraction, memory control, peripheral devices, and different memory bus structures.

While learning Multiple Bus structure and organization and its several benefits, one must also go through computer organization and architecture syllabus to avoid getting confused in the related concepts.

The article also contains the syllabus and important questions apart from the notes and reference books. All of this adds up for providing the students a brief about all the basic and advanced level concepts. After taking references from all the included contents, the preparation boosts up, and the students will surely score great marks in the test results.

Multiple Bus Organization also has many purposes in the global industries. This article will provide the students with everything that will briefly discuss their various uses and applications. For the future life of the students too, this article will be immensely beneficial.

Here is a list of all the included contents in the article:

  1. Multiple Bus Organization Reference Books
  2. Multiple Bus Organization Curriculum
  3. List of Multiple Bus Organization Important Questions
  4. Frequently Asked Questions

Introduction to Multiple Bus Organization:

A bus is an important memory transferring device used by most computer devices and Smartphones to pass data back and forth across the entire system. The overall speed of the machine is directly affected by the types of buses used by it. Simple computer design uses single bus structures for transferring data, and Multiple bus organization uses multiple buses for enhanced performance.

In a multi-bus architecture, all the pathways are suited for handling some special types of information.

In single bus architecture, all the devices use a common bus for data transfer; thus, the system’s efficiency and performance is lower. However, in the multiple bus organization, the wasted time lowers down, and thus the speed and performance of the entire system boost up. Thus, this is one of the key reasons behind using Multiple bus organization.

Additionally, the Multiple Bus organization also provides many choices for connecting the devices to the computer, making it more compatible.

Multiple Bus Organization Notes and Study material Pdf Free Download:

We provide some best Multiple Bus Organization notes and study material to the students with expertly designed content to meet their varying requirements. Students worldwide can highly trust these contents for preparations and rely on them to have the best results ever.

Multiple Bus Organization is a topic that requires several example-based descriptions to make them more understandable and help them understand every concept precisely and effectively. Thus, to ensure that the students do not have to move here and there for the notes and do not have to face many hassles, we provide the best study materials with several examples stated and some solved problems for helping the students practice the concepts.

Study materials and lecture notes are available in an easily accessible and downloadable pdf format that ensures that they can use them anytime for their reference and do not have to search more for them.

Multiple Bus Organization Reference Books:

Here is a list of some best reference books that the experts recommend for preparing for Multiple Bus Organization.

These are the best reference books worldwide for learning all the Multiple Bus Organization concepts well and get the best practice. The authors of these books are also some well-known scholars with immense knowledge and experience in the contents.

The books are also best for competitive level examinations and have everything related to Multiple Bus Organization for helping the students understand everything without any competition and be the experts and champions of the subject.

Many top institutions also recommend these books to the students and motivate them to have every finest detail about the topics. The books also contain many examples and problems with their solutions to support all the topics and help them prepare in every possible manner.

Below are some best reference books for Multiple Bus Organization:

  • W. Stallings, “Computer Organization and Architecture: Designing for performance”, 67h Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2003, ISBN 81 – 203 – 2962 – 7
  • C. Hamacher, V. Zvonko, S. Zaky, “Computer Organization”, McGraw Hill, 2002, 5th edition ISBN 007-120411-3
  • J. Hayes, “Computer Architecture and Organization”, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1988 ISBN 0 – 07 – 100479 – 3
  • W. Stallings William, “Computer Organization and Architecture: Principles of Structure and Function”, 2nd Ed, Maxwell Macmillan Editions, 1990 ISBN 0 – 02 – 946297 – 5 (Chapter: 2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14).
  • Tanenbaum, “Structured Computer Organization”, 4th Ed, Prentice Hall of India, 1991 ISBN 81 – 203 – 1553 – 7 (Chapter: 1,4,5,6,8).
  • G. George, “Computer Organization: Hardware and Software”, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 1986 (Chapter: 3,4,5).
  • D. Paterson, J. Hennesy, “Computer Organization and Design: The Hardware Software Interface”, 2nd Edition, Morgan Kauffman, 2000 ISBN

Multiple Bus Organization Curriculum:

Apart from the learning materials with descriptions, problems, and examples stated, the students also require a complete syllabus or curriculum of the subject while learning it. The subject syllabus helps the student understand all the included topics so that they can arrange the notes individually for different topics and start the preparation beforehand.

A curriculum is also necessary. It has all the topics mentioned sequentially, ensuring that the students will not get confused while learning any related topics and clearly understand everything.

Here is the updated syllabus of Multiple Bus Organization and Computer Architecture:

Unit I: Computer Evolution & Arithmetic ·A Brief History of computers

·Designing for Performance

·Von Neumann Architecture

·Hardware architecture

·Computer Components

·Interconnection Structures

·Bus Interconnection

·Scalar Data Types

·Fixed and Floating point numbers

·Signed numbers

·Integer Arithmetic

·2’s Complement method for multiplication

·Booths Algorithm

·Hardware Implementation


·Restoring and Non Restoring algorithms

·Floating-point representations

·IEEE standards

·Floating-point arithmetic

Unit II: The Central Processing Unit ·Machine Instruction characteristics

·Types of operands

·Types of operations

·Addressing modes

·Instruction formats

·Instruction types

·Processor organization

·Intel 8086 as an example

·Programmers model of 8086

·Max/min mode

·Register Organization

·Instruction cycles

·Read Write cycles

·8086 assembly instruction examples for explaining addressing modes

Unit III: The Control Unit ·Single Bus Organization

·Control Unit Operations: Instruction sequencing

·Micro operations and Register Transfer

·Hardwired Control: Design methods

·State table and classical method

·Design Examples

·Multiplier CU

·Micro-programmed Control: Basic concepts

·Microinstructions and micro- program sequencing

Unit IV: Memory Organization ·Characteristics of memory systems

·Internal and External Memory


·High-Speed Memories

·Cache Memory

·Organization and Mapping Techniques

·Replacement Algorithms

·Cache Coherence

·MESI protocol

·Virtual Memory

·Main Memory allocation



·Address Translation Virtual to Physical.

·Secondary Storage

Unit V: I/O Organization Input/Output Systems

·Programmed I/O

·Interrupt Driven I/O

·8086 Interrupt structure

·Direct Memory Access (DMA)

·8237 features Buses and standard Interfaces

·Synchronous, Asynchronous

·Parallel I/O 8255 features

·Serial I/O 8251 features


·Working mechanisms of Peripherals

Unit VI: Parallel Organization ·Instruction level pipelining and Superscalar Processors

·Multiple Processor Organizations

·Closely and Loosely coupled multiprocessors systems

·Symmetric Multiprocessors



·Vector Computations

·RISC: Instruction execution characteristics

·RISC architecture and pipelining


List of Multiple Bus Organization Important Questions:

Having access to important questions helps the students know everything about the type of questions asked in several examinations from several topics and how they must prepare themselves for different exams. Important questions play a vital role in the preparation and entire learning process for the students, boosting the whole practice procedure.

Here is a list of some highly important questions for Multiple Bus Organization:

  • Explain the Differences between CISC & RISC.
  • Explain various Instruction types.
  • Explain various addressing modes.
  • Describe the Booth’s algorithm for multiplication of signed two’s Complement numbers.
  • Explain multiple bus organization in detail.
  • Explain the floating-point addition and subtraction.
  • Draw the flowchart of the floating-point addition process.
  • Explain the concept of a hardwired control unit.
  • Explain the concept of a microprogrammed control unit.
  • Describe the execution of the complete instructions and nano programming.
  • Describe the entire pipeline process in brief.
  • Explain several data hazards and instruction hazards.
  • Briefly describe the different types of exceptions.
  • Write the characteristics of some memory technologies.
  • Describe the associative memory and compare segmentation and paging mechanics for implementation of virtual memory.
  • Explain memory interleaving.
  • Discuss various mapping techniques of cache memories.
  • What is virtual memory? Discuss the use of paging in the implementation of virtual memory.
  • Describe the design of input and output interfaces and explain interrupts.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q1: Differentiate between single and multiple bus organizations.

A1: There are several differences between single and multiple bus organization, like:

  • In a single bus organization, one bus is used to communicate between different peripherals, but in multiple bus organizations, two buses are used for separate communication paths.
  • In a single bus organization, both data and instruction transfer in the same bus, but multiple bus organizations both occur in different buses.
  • The performance of a multiple bus organization is higher than that of a single bus organization.
  • The cost of a single bus organization is lower than a multiple bus organization.
  • Single bus organization requires more number of cycles for execution than the multiple bus organization.
  • The execution process for a single bus organization is slower than a multiple bus organization.
  • Multiple bus organization has more number of associated registers than a single bus organization.
  • The only single operand can be read from the bus using a single bus organization, but the number rises to two for multiple bus organizations.

Q2: Explain some benefits of multiple bus organization.

A2: Multiple bus organization is a vital mode for industrial systems. In this, several devices having different transfer rates are connected. Simultaneously, more throughputs are also maintained in multiple bus organization. Some benefits of the architecture are as follows:

  • Allows more number of devices to get connected with the computer.
  • This system has faster execution as many devices work together to ensure better performance.
  • This is highly compatible with older and newer devices.
  • Multiple bus organization has a multi-core processor for transferring more data and information and minimizing the wait time.


Multiple Bus Organization is an important topic for Computer Organization and Architecture, and this article has the study resources for the entire topic as well as all the related ones. The article also contains a curriculum to help the students understand the right sequence to be followed to learn the topic well. This article also contains the best lecture notes and reference books to help the students pace their preparation and score well in different exams.

MCQs on Apoplast for NEET 2023

MCQs on Apoplast for NEET

NEET Biology is the scoring paper in the medical entrance examination. Here, you will discover the NEET Biology MCQ Questions for all Concepts as per the latest syllabus. Practice more on a regular basis with these NEET Biology objective questions on air pollution and improve your subject knowledge & problem-solving skills along with time management. NEET Biology Apoplast Multiple Choice Questions make you feel confident in answering the question in the exam & increases your scores to high.

MCQs on Apoplast

1. In plants, water movement is
(a) up the potential gradient in both symplast and apoplast
(b) down the potential gradient in apoplast and up the potential gradient in symplast
(c) down the potential gradient in both symplast and apoplast
(d) down a potential gradient in symplast and up the potential gradient in apoplast


Answer: (c)

2. Pick the incorrect statement regarding apoplast movement
(a) movement of water is through mass flow
(b) gradient-dependant
(c) mass flow of water takes place as a result of cohesive and adhesive properties of water
(d) continuous water stream gets tension when water is absorbed by root hairs


Answer: (d)

3. In roots, most of the water flows through
(a) Symplast
(b) Apoplast
(c) Imbibition
(d) Active transport


Answer: (b)

4. Movement of water through apoplast stops at the level of ________ and crosses membrane to undergo symplast till xylem cells
(a) starch sheath
(b) inner layer of cortex
(c) endodermis
(d) all of the above


Answer: (d)

5. In plants, this about apoplast and symplast water movement is true
(a) being down a potential gradient
(b) an equal rate of transport
(c) conduction through interconnected protoplasts
(d) assistance by cytoplasmic streaming


Answer: (a)

6. Pressure in roots develops due to
(a) low osmotic soil potential
(b) rise in transpiration
(c) active absorption
(d) passive absorption


Answer: (c)

7. Which of the following statements does not hold true in context of apoplast?
(a) occurs through intercellular spaces and cell walls
(b) system of adjacent cell walls is continuous all through the plant
(c) crosses cell membrane
(d) discontinuous path at the place of casparian strips of endodermis in roots


Answer: (c)

8. This is not part of apoplast
(a) cell walls
(b) vessels
(c) intercellular spaces
(d) sieve tubes


Answer: (d)

9. Symplastic movement is slower than apoplastic movement because
(a) molecule has to enter through cell membrane
(b) it is down the gradient
(c) as it involves cytoplasmic streaming always
(d) all of the above


Answer: (a)

10. Most of the movement in roots through apoplast is due to
(a) endodermal cells are loosely packed and hence no resistance to water movement
(b) medullary cells are loosely packed and hence no resistance to water movement
(c) cortical cells are loosely packed and hence no resistance to water movement
(d) pericycle cells are loosely packed and hence no resistance to water movement


Answer: (c)

International Business Lecture Notes Pdf for MBA Students – Download MBA 4th Sem IB Study Materials & Textbooks for free

International Business Notes

International Business Notes in PDF: MBA Students who are preparing for their upcoming exams can download IB Study Material & Lecture Notes in PDF Format. You may also find more prep resources along with International Business full notes pdf from here. So, check out the page completely and obtain MBA International Business Suggested Books, Important Review Questions List, and Syllabus for free. Candidates can utilize these preparation resources and score well in the examination and excel in the subject. Hence, grab the chance of downloading IB Lecture Notes PDF for free of cost by accessing the links available in the below modules.

Content in this Article:

About International Business (IB)

The definition of International Business is the expansion of business operations from domestic to various foreign countries with the aim of accomplishing the requirements of international customers. International Business includes those activities private and public companies that require the movement across national boundaries of goods and services, resources, knowledge, or skills. Know more about International Business (IB) subject by referring to the below given complete notes of IB in PDF.

Also Read:

International Business Lecture Notes PDF Free Download Links – 4th Semester

Pursuing MBA students are in the right place to get the best notes about International Business. For making your preparation effective, we have come up with the best online IB Lecture Notes and study materials in pdf. You can download them for free along with pdf formatted International Business Questions and Answers list from the below table. So, make use of these prep resources for MBA IB Exam and practice well.

MBA International Business Full Notes PDF Download Links
MBA IB Study Material Download
International Business Lecture Notes for MBA ppt Download
MBA International Business (IB) Notes pdf free download Download
International Business Questions and Answers Download

Recommended Books for MBA International Business – 2nd Year 4th Sem

Are you looking for the best International Business Reference Books? If yes, the books gathered over here in the form of a list may assist you at the time of your preparation. These suggested books will make you score more marks in the exam by understanding the concepts in a simple & better way. So, referring to this best list of MBA IB Text Books suggested by subject experts is essential for all MBA students.

  • J.V. Prabhakara Rao, R.V. Rangachary, International Business, Kalyani Publishers, 2000.
  • International Business: Competing in the Global Market Place (by Charles W L Hill)
  • Global Business (by Mike W Peng)
  • Bhalla, V.K., and S.shiv Ramu, 1996, International Business, An mol, New Delhi.
  • International Marketing (by Philip Cateora and John Graham)
  • Global Marketing Management System (by Dr. Basil Janavaras)
  • Eitman, D.K., and A.I Stenehilf, MULTINATIONAL BUSINESS CASH FINANCE, Addison Wesley, New York.
  • International Business: The Challenge of Global Competition (by Donald Ball and Micheal Geringer)

MBA 4th Sem International Busines Syllabus in detail

Having knowledge of the IB syllabus is very important to kick start your preparation because it covers all the topics included in the subject. Preparing the ultimate plan and time schedule for learning all the concepts according to the International Business syllabus is the smart way to finish the preparation process on time. This can also aid you to clear the exam with ease and score well in the final exam. So, have a glimpse at the IB Exam Syllabus in a detailed structure from below and utilize it in a correct way.

Unit – I

International Monetary and Financial System: Importance of international finance; Bretton woods conference and afterward, IMF and the World Bank; European monetary system – meaning and scope.

Unit – II

The balance of Payment and International Linkages: Balance of payments and its components; the International flow of goods, services, and capital; Copying with current account deficit.

Unit – III

International Financial Markets and Instruments: International capital and money markets; Money and capital market instruments; Salient features of different international markets; Arbitrage opportunities; Integration of markets; Role of financial intermediaries.

Unit – IV

Foreign Exchange Markets: Determining exchange rates; Fixed and flexible exchange rate system; Exchange rate theories; Participants in the foreign exchange markets; Foreign exchange market – cash and spot markets; Exchange rate quotes; LERMS; Factors affecting exchange rates – spot rates, forward exchange rates, forward exchange contracts; Foreign exchange and currency futures; Exchange rate arrangement in India; Exchange dealings and currency possession; information and communication; Foreign exchange trades.

Unit – V

International Capital and Money Market Instruments; GDRs, ADRs, IDRs, Euro bonds, Euro loans, Repos, CPs, floating-rate instruments, loan syndication, and Euro deposits.

MBA International Business Important Review Questions

Refer to the MBA IB Important Questions List from the list available over here. First of all, review the list of questions provided below and pave your preparation accordingly. Practicing and learning MBA International Business (IB) Review questions repeatedly help you perform well in the exam and also your score will get increased for sure.

  1. What is the difference between a term loan and revolving credit facility?
  2. What should the governments, Council for Leather Exports, and the leather industry do to overcome the problem?
  3. Discuss the implications of social activist groups for business.
  4. What is a Eurobond and how does it differ from a domestic bond?
  5. What is the issuing procedure for a Eurobond?
  6. Describe the process of organizing a syndicated loan.
  7. What are the characteristics of a domestic bond? An international bond? A foreign bond? A Euro bond? A Global bond?
  8. What are the crucial aspects of negotiating a syndicated bank loan?
  9. With reference to this case, discuss the failure of the governments, the Council for Leather Exports and the leather industry, and the lesions of this case.
  10. What factors aid in making the international capital markets move integrates? Explain the importance of the emerging capital market in international investing.
  11. What is the difference between the money market and the capital market?
  12. Discuss the features of GDR
  13. What is the difference between an intermediated and a non-intermediated financial market?
  14. Why are Euro loans attractive to borrowers.
  15. What is the difference between an internal and an external market?
  16. Write a note on American Depository Receipt (ADRs)
  17. What are the benefits and drawbacks of offering securities in bearer form relative to registered form?
  18. Summarise the various considerations that enter into the decision to choose the currency, market, and vehicle for long term borrowing.
  19. What is an equity-linked Eurobond?

FAQs on IB Full Notes & Study Materials Pdf Free Download

1. Which is the best lecture notes for MBA IB subject?

Subjects experts and Indian top MBA universities suggested notes are the best Internation Business Lecture Notes for MBA students. They will find all guidance about the subject and the explanation of its concepts by these IB Notes Pdf. So, toppers & subject teachers recommended lecture notes for IB are the best one our of many other notes in the web or market.

2. What are the most important books for the International Business MBA?

There are so many books available out there in the market for MBA students but good books are rear and they are the ultimate guide for your preparation. So, we have listed a few IB Best Books here below:

1. Global Business by Mike W Peng.
2. Bhalla, V.K., and S.shiv Ramu, 1996, International Business, An mol, New Delhi.
3. International Marketing by Philip Cateora and John Graham.

3. Which is the best website that provides MBA International Business Notes PDF & Reference books List?

NCERTBooks.Guru is the best and most reliable website for all students who are pursuing any kind of course in India. Because they will cover all types of preparation resources to help the students in their preparation. And this site also provides what you are looking for i.e., International Business Notes & Syllabus in PDF format.

4. How can I download MBA International Business Textbooks & Notes Pdf for free?

All you need to perform is just click on the direct pdf download links available on our page and access the IB Notes in PDF format. You can view or download the International Business Full Notes pdf for free and utilize it whenever you wish.


We hope you get enough information regarding International Business PDF Lecture Notes & Reference Books from this page. If you require some other details about IB Notes & study materials, please ask us through the comment box and we will soon revert back to you with the best possible solution. Meanwhile, you can also bookmark our site for getting more updates on books, full notes, question papers, syllabus, etc.