MBA Financial Accounting Lecture Notes Free PDF – Download 1st Sem Financial Accounting Suggested Books & Syllabus

Financial Accounting Notes

Financial Accounting Notes PDF: In MBA Post Graduation Degree, students will cover all core subjects like finance, accounting, management, marketing, human resources, operations, and statistics to set the career in the right path. But for an easy understanding of the concepts, you require the best resources with you at your preparation. For making that possible, we are gathering all Core subjects of MBA prep resources. In that way, today we have come up with the preparation source for one core subject i.e., Financial Accounting.

Students are advised to refer to this Financial Accounting Lecture Notes and prepare all the topics in detail. You will get the complete MBA financial accounting notes in pdf along with syllabus, accounting study materials, MBA 1st sem recommended books, important review question list in this article. Hence, utilize these resources during your preparation and score well in the MBA first semester examination.

Content in this Article:

About Financial Accounting

Financial Accounting is at most the process of providing financial statements that businesses use to show their financial performance and status to people outside the company, including investors, creditors, suppliers, and customers. An efficient financial system allots resources in various investment avenues along with encouraging savings and therefore it stimulates the economic development rate. This subject is also included in other courses too like B.COM and BBA. So, students who are pursuing these courses can also able to download financial accounting notes & books pdf from this page.

MBA Financial Accounting Lecture notes & books assist you a lot during your preparation by explaining the concepts in a simple and understandable language. So, look no further and just grab the opportunity of downloading pdf formatted MBA Accounting Notes and Model Papers.

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MBA First Sem Financial Accounting Lecture Notes & Study Material in PDF Free Download Links

Practicing with the best financial accounting books will make you stand as a topper in your first-year semester examinations. You can find many advantages by learning accounting concepts via these notes & reference books. Financial Accounting Notes Pdf includes a detailed explanation of the concepts covered in the syllabus and important questions, solved and unsolved exercises for every topic, and many more like this. To get benefitted by these during your preparation, make sure to download MBA financial accounting lecture notes pdf and utilize it while studying. You can Download Financial Accounting MBA 1st Sem Textbook, study materials, question papers in pdf format from the below table for free of cost.

Financial Accounting Notes in Pdf Download

PDF Download Links
Download Financial Accounting Textbook Download
Financial Accounting Study Material Pdf Download
MBA Financial Accounting Model Question Papers Download

Reference Books for Financial Accounting – MBA 1st Sem

Apart from the Financial Accounting Notes Pdf download, we have also added some of the best books for MBA Accounting in finance suggested by subject experts and top universities in India. After referring to the lecture notes of financial accounting, check out the below list of Financial Accounting Reference Books, and pick the best one out and kick start your preparation for the first sem examination.

  • P.C. Tulsian, Financial Accounting, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
  • Lal, Jawahar, and Seema Srivastava, Financial Accounting, Himalaya Publishing House.
  • S. N. Maheshwari, Financial Accounting, Vikas Publication, New Delhi.
  • Monga, J.R., Financial Accounting: Concepts and Applications, Mayoor Paper Backs, New Delhi.
  • T.S, Grewal, Introduction to Accounting, S. Chand and Co., New Delhi
  • Shukla, M.C., T.S. Grewal, and S.C.Gupta. Advanced Accounts. Vol.-I. S. Chand & Co., New Delhi.
  • Bhushan Kumar Goyal and HN Tiwari, Financial Accounting, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi.

Detailed MBA Financial Accounting Syllabus 2020

Have a prior idea about the detailed syllabus of financial accounting help students to understand what are the concepts covered in the textbooks, notes, & study materials. So, check out the detailed MBA First Sem Financial Accounting Unit-wise Syllabus from the list presented below and make use of the Financial Accounting Notes Pdf available over here and pave your preparation.


Book-Keeping and Accounting – Financial Accounting – Concepts and Conventions – Double Entry System – Preparation of Journal, Ledger and Trial Balance – Preparation of Final Accounts –Trading, Profit and Loss Account and Balance Sheet With Adjustment Entries, Simple Problems Only – Capital and Revenue Expenditure and Receipts.


Depreciation – Causes – Methods of Calculating Depreciation – Straight Line Method, Diminishing Balance Method, and Annuity Method – Ratio Analysis – Uses and Limitations – Classification of Ratios – Liquidity, Profitability, Financial, and Turnover Ratios – Simple Problems Only.


Funds Flow Analysis – Funds From Operation, Sources, and Uses of Funds, Preparation of Schedule of Changes In Working Capital and Funds Flow Statements – Uses And Limitations – Cash Flow Analysis – Cash From Operation – Preparation of Cash Flow Statement – Uses and Limitations – Distinction Between Funds Flow and Cash Flow – Only Simple Problems


Marginal Costing – Marginal Cost and Marginal Costing – Importance – Break-Even Analysis – Cost Volume Profit Relationship – Application of Marginal Costing Techniques, Fixing Selling Price, Make or Buy, Accepting a Foreign Order, Deciding Sales Mix.


Cost Accounting – Elements of Cost – Types of Costs – Preparation of Cost Sheet – Standard Costing – Variance Analysis – Material Variances – Labour Variances – Simple Problems Related to Material And Labour Variances Only.

Important Review Questions for MBA 1st Sem Financial Accounting Paper

Candidates can also refer to a few important questions of financial accounting along with good lecture notes for MBA 1st Sem Accounting subject on this page. We have given some of the essential MBA Financial Accounting Review Questions for 1st Sem Exams below:

  1. Why is accounting called the language of business?
  2. Write a short note on accounting standards.
  3. What are the functions of accounting?
  4. ‘Accounting is a service function’. Discuss the statement in the context of a modern manufacturing business.
  5. What is the significance of the dual aspect concept?
  6. Is accounting a staff function or line function? Explain the reasons.
  7. Distinguish between financial accounting and management accounting.
  8. Give an account of the various branches of accounting.
  9. What are accounting concepts and conventions? Is there any difference between them?
  10. Accounting as a social science can be viewed as an information system. examine.
  11. What is the position in India regarding the formulation and enforcement of accounting standards?

FAQs on Financial Accounting Books & Study Materials PDF Download

1. What is financial accounting notes pdf?

Financial Accounting is a specialized branch of accounting that holds a record of a company’s financial transactions. By applying regulated guidelines, the transactions are recorded, summarized, and presented in a financial report or financial statements such as an income statement or a balance sheet. Financial Accounting Notes Pdf holds a detailed explanation of the subject along with many exam resources for candidates to prepare before the exams.

2. What are the basic concepts of financial accounting?

There are many concepts which are essential for learning deeply to gain more knowledge of accounting subject. In MBA, Financial Accounting subject is a core one because a student can set up their career with better opportunities in the field of financial accounting. So, let’s check out the basic concepts of accounting from below and study thoroughly by using MBA Financial Accounting Books & Notes Pdf:

1. Accural concept.
2. Conservation concept.
3. Consistency concept.
4. Economic entity concept.
5. Going concern concept.
6. Matching concept.
7. Materiality concept.

3. What are the two major types of books of accounts?

There are two main books of accounts, Journal and Ledger.

4. Which is the best book for financial accounting?

Students can find various best books for MBA financial accounting our there in the market but choosing the correct one is the biggest task. To help you guys in this, we have researched and collected a few good books for financial accounting MBA 1st sem which are suggested by the subject experts. They are as follows:

1. Fundamental Accounting Principles by McGraw Hill
2. T.S, Grewal, Introduction to Accounting, S. Chand and Co., New Delhi
3. Ambrish Gupta, FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING FOR MANAGEMENT, Pearson, Delhi, 2004.

5. How to download pdf formatted Financial Accounting Notes for MBA 1st sem exams?

Candidates who are seeking an MBA course can get all subjects books, notes, study materials for semester exams at So, visit the site and find MBA Financial Notes Lecture Notes pdf to download. Or else, just click on the links provided here & download Financial accounting books & study materials in PDF for free.

Final Lines

We hope the provided content about MBA Financial Accounting Notes pdf free download will help you more during your 1st sem exam preparation. If you need more info related to MBA 1st Sem Accounting Books & Study Materials pdf, drop a comment below through the comment section. We will shortly get back to you with the best sources you required. Meanwhile, visit our website and find additional data like MBA Course Details, Accounting Reference Books, Full notes, and many more.

MBA 2nd Sem Production And Operations Management Lecture Notes & Reference Books Pdf Free Download

Production And Operations Management Notes

Production And Operations Management Notes PDF: Students who are preparing for upcoming MBA first-year 2nd sem exams can download Production And Operations Management(POM) lecture notes from this page for free of cost. These POM Notes & study materials for MBS are available in Pdf formatted files. So, candidates can easily download and access the pdf files of Production And Operations Management Notes offline whenever needed.

Books, Notes, study materials are the primary resources for any exam preparation. Thus the reason, today we are here to provide the MBA core subject ‘Production & Operations Management Textbooks & Notes in pdf’. Apart from the lecture notes on Production And Operations Management, we have prevailed syllabus in detailed structure, suggested books for POM, and Important Review Question list in this article.

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Download Production And Operations Management Lecture Notes & Textbook PDF

Looking for the pdf download link for Production And Operations Management Lecture Notes then here you go. The below table holds the direct links to download Production And Operations Management Notes, study materials, and model questions papers in pdf. These POM Textbooks are designed based on the latest syllabus and prepared in a simple and lucid manner to make it more understandable for students.

Study effectively with our handy prep resource material and plan your preparation methodology accordingly to secure good marks in the exam. So, don’t waste your time for further searches, just make use of these POM Lecture Notes Pdf by accessing the available below links and prepare well.

MBA Production And Operations Management Books & Notes PDF Download Links
Production and operations management Study Material Pdf Download
Production and operation management Text Book for MBA 2nd sem Download
MBA 1st Year Production and operation management Model Question Paper Download
Production and operations management Lecture Notes Pdf Download

Must check out the following links:

Recommended MBA 2nd Sem Production and Operations Management Books List

Thorough knowledge of the concept is very important to score well in the exams for all MBA students. So, learning the concept from the detailed explained book is the best & smart way to understand the topic easily. Thus, we have curated a list of best books for Production and Operations Management MBA recommended by subject experts. So, check out the list mentioned below and choose the suitable POM reference book for your preparation.

  • Production and Operations Management by Everette E. Adam, Jr. Ronald J. Ebert; Publisher: Prentice-Hall of India
  • Production and Operations Management by N.G. Nair; Publisher: Tata Mc. Graw Hill
  • Production and Operations Management by Panneerselvam R; Publisher: Prentice-Hall of India
  • Operations Management by Shafer Scott M; Publisher: John Wiley
  • Succeeding in Project-Driven Organizations by Knutson Joan; Publisher: John Wiley

Unit Wise Production and Operations Management Syllabus in Detailed Structure – Second Semester

A detailed structure of the MBA Production & Operations Management unit wise syllabus is presented here for assisting students to pave their preparation. By knowing the MBA 2nd Sem Production and Operations Management Syllabus, you can understand what are the concepts included in this subject in detail and plan your exam preparation schedule accordingly. Hence, let’s look at the below subheads and cover the entire syllabus of Production & Operations Management while preparation.

Unit I:

Operations and Productivity: Operations Functions and Evolution of POM; Framework for Managing Operations; Operations Strategy; Trends in Operations Management

Unit 2:

Product and Process Design: Product Development; Product Design Tools; Design of Services; Flexible Manufacturing; Systems; Process Design: Types of Process, Modern Production Technologies; Process Reengineering

Unit 3:

Capacity Design: Capacity Management; Economies and Diseconomies of Scale and Learning Curve; Capacity Strategies;
Decision Trees

Unit 4:

Facility Location: Location Strategy and its Importance; Factors influencing Plant Location; Globalization; Location SelectionModels

Unit 5:

Layout Design: Layout Planning; Layout Types; Design of Product and Process Layouts; Job Design; Work Measurement

Unit 6:

Inventory Management: Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) Model; Quantity Discount Models; Spare Parts Inventory; Material Resources Planning; Manufacturing Resource Planning; Purchasing Objectives

Unit 7:

Operations Planning and Scheduling Systems: Aggregate Planning and its Process; Master Scheduling; Aggregate Planning for Service Organizations; Operating Schedules; Sequencing Rules; Optimized Production Technology and Synchronous Manufacturing; Just in Time (JIT) Manufacturing System; Basics of SCM and ERP

MBA First Year 2nd Sem Production & Operations Management Important Questions

By solving various previous question papers of Production & Operations Management helps students gain more knowledge on the concept and some important & repeated questions from each unit. It aids them to prepare all those questions and get ready for the final examination to give their best shot & score well. So, here we have given some of the Production & Operations Management Important Review Questions list below for the sake of your preparation:

  • What do you understand by operation and production management?
  • Explain the regression method of demand forecasting.
  • Define operation processes and explain its key components.
  • Discuss critically the different models of forecasting.
  • Discuss the various stages in the evolution of production and operation management discipline
  • What is the function of a Production Manager? Is this function different from the function of a marketing manager?
  • What are the future trends in production and operation management?
  • How will environmental issues impact on the future of production and operations?
  • What is the strategic perspective of operation and production management?
  • Define the term “forecasting” What is its purpose? Describe the uses and limitations
    of the weighted moving average method of forecasting
  • What are the possible consequences if a large-scale firm places its product in the market without having estimated the demand for its product?

FAQs on MBA Operations Management Textbooks & Notes PDF Free Download

1. Which is the best Books on Production and Operations Management for MBA?

The books that are suggested by the subject experts and the toppers of the semester are the best books for MBA Production and Operations Management subject. Check out the above-mentioned Production and Operations Management recommended textbooks list and prepare well for the exams.

2. What are the best books about operations management?

Here are the three best books on MBA Operations Management:

1. Operations Management by William J. Stevenson
2. Production And Operations Management: Manufacturing And Services by Richard B. Chase
3. Introduction to Materials Management by J.R. Tony Arnold

3. Where can I get Lecture Notes for MBA 2nd Sem Production and Operations Management subject?

You can easily avail Production and Operations Management study material and notes from this page. Just access the needed MBA first year 2nd sem lecture notes with the help of available links and score well in the final examination.

4. How to download Production & Operations Management Text Books & Notes for MBA?

All you do is just hit on the direct download links available over here and simply download the Production & Operations Management Notes in PDF for free of cost. Save the file for further preparation and cover all the concepts of the subject before the final exams & secure more than pass marks.


We believe that you find enough books & lecture notes on Production & Operations Management MBA 2nd sem subject. In case you need anything related to Production & Operations Management Notes & study materials, please reach us via the below comment section. Also, visit our site and avail the updated & latest information on MBA First Year Core Subjects Notes, Study materials, Syllabus, Question papers, etc.

Download International Financial Management MBA PDF Lecture Notes & Reference Books, Question Paper for free

International Financial Management Notes

International Financial Management Notes PDF for MBA 4th Sem: Guys are you looking for MBA 2nd Year International Financial Management Preparation resources? if yes, then you are in the right place. here we have listed MBA 4th sem International Financial Management Lecture Notes & Books in PDF Format to help the candidates who are seeking for this.

This page is more flexible for all students so that you can easily view and download the International Financial Management MBA Notes & study materials for free and gain complete knowledge about the concepts covered in the subject. In order to clear your sem exam, we even compiled Core MBA International Financial Management Reference books, syllabus, & important questions list on this page to pave your preparation for the upcoming exams.

Content in this Article:

MBA International Financial Management Notes & Study Material PDF

Candidates who are pursuing MBA 2nd year should prepare for the upcoming examination with proper preparation resources. This helps you to achieve more marks in the exams. one od the ultimate guide for preparation is Notes. So, aspirants are advised to try out the MBA ultimate preparation tools like lecture notes and books for International financial management and have a grip on the concepts.

Therefore, use these available International financial management Notes & books and get a stronger foundation of the fundamentals. Download MBA 4th sem International financial management study materials & question papers pdf along with pdf notes by accessing the direct links provided on our page. Have a look at the further sections and grab all the content you are looking for.

Also, check the following links:

Download 2nd Year MBA International Financial Management Lecture Notes in PDF

In this section, students will discover MBA 4th semester International Financial Management Full Notes Pdf from the below table. By these lecture notes pdf, you will surely understand each and every concept of the subject because they are prepared by subject experts in a simple language.

So, without any other thoughts, access the direct links available on our page & avail MBA International Financial Management Lecture Notes & Textbooks Pdf to use them during your preparation. Go to the below table and acquire all the topics and have a grip on them before the final exams and score more marks in the examination.

Source Name PDF Download Links
International Financial Management Study Material Download
International Financial Management Notes Pdf Download
International Financial Management Lecture Notes Download
International Financial Management Question Paper  Download
International Financial Management PPT  Download

Reference Books for MBA International Financial Management – 4th Sem

The following are some of the International Financial Management Reference Books by subject experts. Check out them by giving the ultimate importance and develop a proper preparation strategy for scoring well in the examinations. These suggested books for International Financial Management MBA are very essential for your efficient preparation:

  • Apte, P.G., International Financial Management, Tata McGraw Hill
  • Shapiro, A.C., Multinational Financial Management, Prentice Hall of India.
  • Buckley, A, International Capita Budgeting, Tata McGraw Hill.
  • Bhattacharya, B., Going International: Response Strategies of the Indian Sector, Wheeler Publishing, New Delhi.
  • Joseph Anbarasu, GLOBAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Ane, Delhi, 2010
  • Jeff Madura, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Cengage learning, Delhi, 2008
  • Alan C Shapiro, MULTINATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT (2002), Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi.
  • C Jeevanandham, EXCHANGE RATE ARITHMETIC, Sultan Chand.
  • David D. K Eiteman, Arthur I Stonehill, Micheal H Moffett, MULTINATIONAL BUSINESS FINANCE, Addison Wesley Longman(Singapore) Pte Ltd. New Delhi.
  • Ephraim Clark, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, Thompson Asia Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
  • Francis Cherunilam: INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS, Tata McGraw Hill Pub Ltd, New Delhi.
  • Henning, C.N., W.Piggot and W.H. Scott, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, McGraw Hill International Edition
  • Ian H Giddy: GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKETS, AITBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi
  • Kirt C. Butler, Multinational Finance, Thomson, New Delhi.
  • KK Dewett, MODERN ECONOMIC THEORY (2006), S.Chand&Company Ltd, New Delhi.

MBA 4th Semester International Financial Management Syllabus Unit-wise

The detailed syllabus of MBA International Financial Management is listed here for the sake of pursuing students to check out the entire concepts and its subtopics before going to kick start their preparation. This helps you to understated a lot about the subjects and aids in planning your preparation effectively. Here is the unit-wise MBA International Financial Management Syllabus in detailed structure:

Unit I: Core Concept of International Finance Management

The significance of International Financial Management; World Monetary System; Challenges in Global Financial Market; Multinational Finance System; International and Multinational Banking.

Unit II: International Banking and Finance

Exchange Rate Regime: A Historical Perspective; International Monetary Fund: Modus Operandi; Fundamental of Monitory and Economic Unit; The Global Financial Market; Domestic and Offshore Market.

Unit III: International Banking and Finance

Structure of Foreign Market; Forward Quotation and Contracts; Exchange Rate Regime and the status of Foreign Exchange Market; International Trade in Foreign Market International Trade in Banking Service; Monetization of Banking Operation.

International Banking and Finance Structuring International Trade Transaction; Fundamental Equivalence Relationship; Structural Model For Foreign Exchange and Exposure Rates; Central Banking Intervention and Equivalence Approach; Issues in the Internalization Process of Foreign Investment and International Business.

Unit IV: Foreign Exchange Risk Management

Classification of Foreign Exchange and Exposure Unit; Management of Exchange Rate Risk Exposure

Unit V: Balance of Payment

Component of Balance Payment; Collection Reporting and Presentation of Statistics; International Flow of Goods, Service and Capital; Alternate Concept of “BOP Surplus” and “Deficits”

Unit VI: Currency and Interest Rates

Currency and Interest Rates Futures; Currency Options; Financial Swap; Theories of Exchange rate Movement: Arbitrage and Law of One price’ Inflation Risk and Currency Forecasting.

Unit VII: International Capital Budgeting

Basics of Capital Budgeting; Issues in Financial Investment Analysis; International Project Appraisal; International Banking crises of 1982; Country Risk Analysis in International Banking.

Unit VIII: Taxation

The objective of Taxation on International Investment; U.S. Taxation of Multinational Investment Corporation; Tax Incentives for Foreign Trade

List of Important Question on MBA International Financial Management

Check out the below list and practice some of the important review questions for MBA International Financial Management to score better marks in the examination:

  1. Discuss the corporate control of your business. Explain why your business in Mexico is exposed to agency problems.
  2. How would you attempt to monitor the ongoing operations of the business?
  3. Explain how you might be able to use a compensation plan to limit the potential agency problems.
  4. Assume that you have been approached by a competitor in Mexico to engage in a joint venture. The competitor would provide the classroom facilities (so you would not need to rent classroom space), while your employees would teach the classes. You and the competitor would split the profits.
  5. Discuss how your potential return and your risk would change if you pursue the joint venture.
  6. Explain the conditions that would cause your business to be adversely affected by exchange rate movements.
  7. Explain how your business could be adversely affected by political risk.

FAQs on International Financial Management Text Books & Notes for MBA

1. What are some best and reliable reference books for International Financial Management?

We sought to mention some of the best and reliable books for International Financial Management in MBA to ace up your preparation. Visit our site and refer to them & secure well in the exam. They are as follows

  1. Buckley, A, International Capita Budgeting, Tata McGraw Hill.
  2. Kirt C. Butler, Multinational Finance, Thomson, New Delhi.
  3. C Jeevanandham, EXCHANGE RATE ARITHMETIC, Sultan Chand.

2. Where can I find MBA International Financial Management Notes & Study Material in PDF format?

You can find MBA International Financial Management Lecture Notes & Study Material required as a part of preparation from our page. Locate the direct links available and get the MBA International Financial Management Notes handy.

3. How to download International Financial Management Books & Notes PDF for MBA 4th sem?

Simply click on the active links available on our page. Hereafter, you will be addressed to a new page having the MBA International Financial Management Notes. Download and save them for future reference.

Final Words

We think the information shed on our page about the MBA International Financial Management Notes PDF Download links have been helpful to you in clearing your concerns. If you need any further assistance, feel free to contact us via comment box so that we can return back to you with the possible solution soon. Visit our web portal for more updates on MBA Books, Notes, and other preparation related support.

B.Com Economics Notes & Reference Books | Business Economics Study Material & Syllabus

B.Com Economics Notes

B.Com Economics Notes: Are you guys searching for B.Com 1st Year Economics Preparation resources? to help all such candidates we have listed B.Com Economics Notes & Study Material in PDF format. You can view or download the Bachelor of Commerce Economics Notes for free and have a deeper understanding of concepts.

For the sake of you, we even listed B.Com Economics Reference Books, Syllabus which you might need while preparing for the Exams.

B.Com Business Economics Notes & Study Material PDF

Aspirants looking for Bachelor of Commerce Study Material have come the right way. We tried our best to provide you the ultimate preparation tools to have a grip on the subject. You can have a stronger foundation of the basics by making use of the Lecture Notes available. Download the Bachelor of Commerce Notes PDF by clicking on the direct links available on our page. To make it easy for you we have provided Syllabus and B.Com Economics Reference Books in the further modules.

B.Com Economics 1st Year Notes

Aspirants can get Complete Business Economics Notes by referring further. Get to know the Bachelor of Commerce 1st Year Economics Notes from here. Access the direct links available on our page to get B.Com Economics Textbooks and use them during your preparation. Go through the B.Com 1st Year Economics Lecture Notes and get acquainted with all the topics and score better grades in the exam.

Bachelor of Commerce Economics – 1st Year
Business Economics Introduction Download
Indian Economics Notes (Hindi) Download
Business Economics Text Book Download
Business Economics Download

Objectives of B.Com Economics Subject

  • The objective behind introducing Economics to Commerce Students is to introduce microeconomics concepts as well as inculcate an analytical approach to the subject.
  • Stimulate interest in students by showing the relievable and use of various economic theories.
  • Apply Economic Reasoning to Problems of Business.

B.Com Business Economics Suggested Books

Candidates appearing for the Business Economics Exam might be looking for books everywhere. We have compiled some of the B.Com Economics Reference Books by subject experts. Refer to them by giving the utmost importance and develop a proper preparation strategy. You can score well in the exam by referring to these preparation aids. All the topics are mentioned in simple language and in detail.

  • Aryasri and Murthy: Business Economics, Tata Mcgraw Hill
  • Deepashree: General Economics, Tata Mcgrawhill
  • HL Ahuja Business Economics, S.Chand
  • KPM Sundaram: Micro Economics
  • Mankiw: Principles of Economics, Cengage
  • Mithani: Fundamentals of Business Economics, Himalaya
  • Salvatore, D. Schaum’s, Outline of Theory and Problems of Microeconomic Theory, McGraw-Hill, International Edition, New Delhi.

Check out the below-related articles

Business Economics Syllabus – B.Com 1st Year

Candidates can have a glance at the Latest B.Com Economics Syllabus to have an overview of topics. Get to know the concepts as per the Units and develop a proper preparation strategy. Aspirants are advised to have a look at the topics and subtopics. It is necessary that you know the Business Economics Exam Syllabus prior to the exam so that it becomes easy while attempting the exam. Cover all the topics by referring to the Business Economics Curriculum so that you don’t invest time in unwanted topics.

Unit I: Nature and Scope of Business Economics

A) Business economics meaning, Scope, and objectives of Business economics, Nature and types of business decisions, Role and responsibilities of a business economist, Role and social responsibility of business & business economist, Microeconomics and macroeconomics definition, scope, Merits, and Demerits.

B) Theory of Consumption.

1. Law of demand, Demand determinants, Changes in Demand, Exceptions to the law of demand Geffen‘s paradox. Law of Equi-marginal utility, Assumptions Limitations, Importance criticism of cardinal approach.

2. Indifference Curve – Concept, definition, Definition, Properties, Importance of indifference curve.

3. The elasticity of demand – Concept, kinds, definition Measurement of elasticity of demand, factors influencing the elasticity of demand, Importance of elasticity of demand.

4. Demand forecasting: Meaning, Need, Importance, Methods of demand forecasting.

Unit II: Theory of Production and Cost

1. Production Function – Concept Definition, Types of products, Total Production, Average Production, Marginal production, Law of variable proportions, Assumptions, Limitations, and Significance.

2. Isoquant curves, Definition, General properties of isoquant curves, Expansion path internal and external economic and diseconomies of scale, Ridge line.

3. Theories of population, – Malthusian theory of population, Optimum theory of population, Demographic Transition Theory of population, and criticism.

Unit III: Theory of cost and Revenue and Markets

1. Law of supply & Criticism influencing factors of supply.

2. The concept of cost – Accounting Cost, Economic Cost, Opportunities Cost, Fixed Cost, Variable Cost, Direct and Indirect Cost, Real Cost, Explicit, Implicit Cost, Money Cost, Total Cost, Average Cost, Marginal Cost, Selling Costs.

3. Revenues – Total Revenues, Average Revenues, Marginal Revenues and Relationship, and Time Element.

4. Market – Concept, meaning, Definition, Classification of market structures, Type Firm, Industry, Meaning, objectives, the difference between Industry and firm.

Unit IV: Pricing of Products

1) Perfect Competition definition, properties Price determination under perfect competition

2) Monopoly -Definition, Properties, Types, Price determination under Monopoly

3) Monopolistic competition, meaning, concepts, properties, and Price determination under Monopolistic competition

4) Price and output under oligopoly – indeterminate pricing and output price leadership, collusive oligopoly, Kinked demand curve

5) Price discrimination – Meaning, Types, Conditions under which it is possible and profitable, importance, Concept of Dumping

Unit V: Theories of Distribution

1) Modern Theory of Distribution of Rent

2) Theory of rent – Ricardian theory of Rent, Modern theory of Rent, Criticism, the concept of Quasi Rent

3) Theory of interest – Loanable Funds Theory of Interest, Liquidity Preference Theory of Interest, Criticism, Concept of gross interest net interest

4) Theories of Profit – Uncertainty Bearing Theory of Profit, Dynamic Theory of Profit, Innovation theory of Profit, Criticism, Gross Profit, Normal Profit, Abnormal profit

5) Theory of Wages – Nominal wages, real wages, Exploitation of labor, Marginal productivity theory of wages

FAQs on B.Com Economics Notes

1. What are some best and reliable reference books for B.Com Economics?

We tried mentioning some of the best and reliable books needed for preparing Economics in B.Com You can check out them for reference to scoring well in the exam. They are as follows

  • Aryasri and Murthy: Business Economics, Tata Mcgraw Hill
  • Deepashree: General Economics, Tata Mcgrawhill
  • HL Ahuja Business Economics, S.Chand

2. Where can I get B.Com Economics Notes & Study Material in PDF format?

You can get B.Com Economics Notes & Study Material needed as a part of preparation from our page. Access the direct links available and keep the Business Economics Notes handy.

3. How to download B.Com Economics Notes PDF?

All you have to do is simply tap on the quick links available on our page. Thereafter, you will be directed to a new page having the B.Com Economics Notes. Download and save them for future reference.

Final Words

We wish the data shared on our page regarding the B.Com Economics Notes has been beneficial to you in clearing your concerns. For any other assistance feel free to reach us via comment box so that we can revert back to you with the possible solution. Stay in touch with our site for more updates on Books, Notes and other preparation related resources.

Computer Graphics Notes PDF Download | B.Tech 2nd Year Study Material, Books List

Computer Graphics Notes

Computer Graphics Notes: Aspirants can get Computer Graphics Lecture Notes and Study Material needed for preparation from here. Furthermore, you will have details regarding Computer Graphics Reference Books, Important Questions, Syllabus, etc. You can download the Computer Graphics Study Material PDF for free of cost. Access the direct links available on our page and ace up your exam preparation to excel in the exam, develop a deeper understanding of the subject.

About Computer Graphics

Computer Graphics is about producing images and animations using a Computer. It includes software and hardware images to make images. Producing Photo Realistic Images is a complex one but the field is still in great demand due to limitless applications.

Computer Graphics has grown over the years and plenty of software systems have been developed for generating computer graphics of various sorts. It includes systems for producing three-dimensional models, rendering software to draw images and associated user interface software and hardware.

Computer Graphics Notes PDF Download

Candidates planning to appear for the Computer Graphics Examination can make use of the Notes and Study Material. Go through the ultimate preparation resources available to excel in the examination. To make it easy for you we have compiled Computer Graphics Question Papers too. Use them during your preparation to score better grades in the exam. You can download the Computer Graphics Notes PDF absolutely for free of cost.

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Computer Graphics Syllabus

Computer Graphics is a valuable resource for students. Students preparing for the Computer Graphics Exam can rely on the Syllabus as it is collected from the official website. Prepare for the exam keeping in mind the detailed Computer Graphics Syllabus. Get to know the topics and concepts as per the latest Syllabus Guidelines. The syllabus can be quite handy while preparing for the exam as you can keep track of what all topics you have studied and what needs to be covered yet.

Unit – I

2D Primitives Output Primitives, Line, Circle, and Ellipse Drawing Algorithms, Attributes of output primitives, Two-dimensional Geometric transformations, Two-dimensional viewing, Line, Polygon, Curve and Text clipping algorithms

Unit – II

3D Concepts Parallel and Perspective projections, Three-dimensional object representation, Polygons, Curved lines, Splines, Quadric Surfaces, Visualization of data sets, 3D transformations, Viewing, Visible surface identification.

Unit – III

Graphics Programming Color Models, RGB, YIQ, CMY, HSV, Animations, General Computer Animation, Raster, Keyframe, Graphics programming using OPENGL, Basic graphics primitives, Drawing three-dimensional objects, Drawing three-dimensional scenes

Unit – IV

Rendering Introduction to Shading models, Flat and Smooth shading, Adding texture to faces, Adding shadows of objects, Building a camera in a program, Creating shaded objects, Rendering texture, Drawing Shadows.

Unit – V

Fractals, Fractals, and Self-similarity, Peano curves, Creating the image by iterated functions, Mandelbrot sets, Julia Sets, Random Fractals

Unit – VI

Overview of Ray Tracing Intersecting rays with other primitives, Adding Surface texture, Reflections, and Transparency, Boolean operations on Objects.

Also, Refer: Mobile Computing PDF Notes

List of Computer Graphics Reference Books

Students who are pursuing B.Tech 2nd Year might be looking for Computer Graphics Books to prepare for exams. Refer to the Best Computer Graphics Books recommended by subject experts. To make it easy for you we even provided the required notes & study material in your preparation. Choose the Book based on your level of understanding and knowledge and ace up your preparation.

  • Donald Hearn, Pauline Baker, Computer Graphics – C Version, second edition, Pearson Education,2004.
  • F.S. Hill, Computer Graphics using OPENGL, Second edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
  • James D. Foley, Andries Van Dam, Steven K. Feiner, John F. Hughes, Computer Graphics-Principles and practice, Second Edition in C, Pearson Education, 2007.

Computer Graphics Review Questions List

Aspirants pursuing Computer Graphics Subject can refer to the list of important questions prevailing. Assess your learning abilities and refer to these review questions without fail. Try covering these questions first so that you can score better grades in the examination.

  • What are the 2D transformations? Explain them with necessary illustrations.
  • Plot the line (-4 -4) to (8, 4) using DDA.
  • Explain the hidden surfaces and line removal methods with their relative merits.
  • Give an algorithm for the generation of Bezier curves?
  • Explain in detail about the methods of controlling the animation.
  • Describe the Creation of images by iterated functions.
  • Explain in detail the YIQ color model.
  • Explain the following:
    a) Adding texture to faces.
    b) Adding shadows of objects
  • Write about random fractals in detail.
  • Write short notes on a) Ray tracing b) Boolean operations on Objects

Do Refer: Computer Network Notes

FAQs on Computer Graphics Notes

1. What are the best resources to learn Computer Graphics?

Candidates can access the Computer Graphics preparation related resources like lecture notes, study material & reference books suggested by experts to excel in the subject.

2. What are the best books to read Computer Graphics?

Aspirants can go through some of the best books recommended by subject experts. Refer to these and score well in the exam. They are along the lines

  • Donald Hearn, Pauline Baker, Computer Graphics – C Version, second edition, Pearson Education,2004.
  • F.S. Hill, Computer Graphics using OPENGL, Second edition, Pearson Education, 2003.
  • James D. Foley, Andries Van Dam, Steven K. Feiner, John F. Hughes, Computer Graphics-Principles and practice, Second Edition in C, Pearson Education, 2007.

3. Where can I get Computer Graphics Notes PDF for free?

You can get the Computer Graphics Notes & Study Material for free of cost. Access the Computer Graphics Study Material through the quick links available and use them as reference for future usage.


We believe the knowledge shared above regarding Computer Graphics has been useful to an extent. For any other assistance needed feel free to reach us via comment section and we will help you out at the earliest possible. Stay connected to avail all the latest updates concerning Notes, Books, Syllabus, and Previous Papers needed as a part of preparation.

Java Programming Notes Free PDF | Download Java Study Material, Reference Books

Java Programming Notes

Java Programming Notes: Are you guys looking for Java Programming Preparation related resources? Don’t panic as you have come the right way and we will give you all that you need for preparation such as Study Materials, Lecture Notes for absolutely free of cost. To help you in the process of learning programming we have compiled Java Programming Syllabus, Study Materials, Reference Books suggested by experts, and Important Questions List.

Access the quick links available on our page to view or download Java Programming Lecture Notes in PDF Format. You can use them during your preparation and go through the concepts thoroughly so that it becomes easy for you to clear the exam.

About Java Programming

Java Programming introduces computer programming using the Java Programming Language with object-oriented programming principles. You will get to know about OOP’s Concepts, Classes, and Objects, Threads, Files, Applets, Swings, and Act. Emphasis is laid on Event-Driven Programming Methods including manipulating and creating objects, classes using Java for Network Level Programming, and Middleware Development.

Java Programming Notes PDF Free Download

Aspirants can avail the Free PDF Download for Java Programming Notes through the quick links available. Make the most out of this premier study material and score better grades in the exam. In addition, we have provided the Previous Papers of Java Programming which you can use during your practice. Assess your learning abilities with the sample papers and concentrate on the areas you need are weak.

Java Programming Notes PDF Download
Java Programming Lecture Notes Download
Java Programming Study Material Download
Java Programming Questions PDF Download
Java Programming PPT Download

Java Programming Syllabus

Java Programming Syllabus contains the topics and subtopics to be covered as a part of the curriculum. We have provided an overview of topics to be prepared during the learning process. Right from the basic one to detailed topic students can access the complete Java Programming Exam Syllabus. It is necessary that students pay attention to the syllabus at the beginning of the academic session itself so that you can prepare in accordance. Plan your studies in advance with the preparation resources available and score better grades in the exam.

Unit – I

Introduction to OOP, procedural programming language and object-oriented language, principles of OOP, applications of OOP, history of java, java features, JVM, program structure. Variables, primitive data types, identifiers, literals, operators, expressions, precedence rules and associativity, primitive type conversion and casting, flow of control.

Unit – II

Classes and objects, class declaration, creating objects, methods, constructors and constructor overloading, garbage collector, the importance of static keyword and examples, this keyword, arrays, command line arguments, nested classes.

Unit – III

Inheritance, types of inheritance, super keyword, final keyword, overriding an abstract class. Interfaces, creating the packages, using packages, the importance of CLASSPATH, and java.lang package. Exception handling, the importance of try, catch, throw throws and finally block, user-defined exceptions, Assertions.

Unit – IV

Multithreading: introduction, thread life cycle, creation of threads, thread priorities, thread synchronization, communication between threads. Reading data from files and writing data to files, random access file

Unit – V

Applet class, Applet structure, Applet life cycle, sample Applet programs. Event handling: event delegation model, sources of event, Event Listeners, adapter classes, inner classes

Unit – VI

AWT: introduction, components and containers, Button, Label, Checkbox, Radio Buttons, List Boxes, Choice Boxes, Container class, Layouts, Menu and Scrollbar

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List of Java Programming Reference Books

Most of the students think what to do to excel in the examination at the end minute. At any time during your preparation Books will let you win half the battle. We will help you overcome this situation by listing some of the reference books that you can use to prepare effectively for the exam. Follow the Java Programming Books suggested by experts and score max. marks in the exam.

  • The complete Reference Java, 8th edition, Herbert Schildt, TMH.
  • Programming in JAVA, Sachin Malhotra, Saurabh Choudary, Oxford.
  • Introduction to Java programming, 7th edition by Y Daniel Liang, Pearson.
  • Swing: Introduction, JFrame, JApplet, JPanel, Components in Swings, Layout Managers in
  • Swings, JList and JScrollPane, Split Pane, JTabbedPane, JTree, JTable, Dialog Box.

Java Programming Questions List

Having an idea on the Java Programming Important Questions list is must as it helps you stand out from the crowd. Thus, we have compiled some of the Java Review Questions for B.Tech Students preparing for their exams. Read them thoroughly without fail and get benefitted in the final exam.

  • What are the problems with procedure languages? How object-oriented languages overcome the problems of procedural languages?
  • Give a brief note on Java Virtual Machine.
  • How to share the data among the functions with the help of static keyword? Give an example.
  • Give the naming conventions in Java.
  • Write an example program to show the calling sequence of constructors.
  • How to create packages and use them in java?
  • What happens when the PrintWriter method receives a string type argument?
  • Write a java program to display all odd-numbered files of a text file.
  •  Briefly, explain about the applet life cycle.
  • Discuss one modern mechanism to handle events.
  • Write a java program that computes the factorial of a number when you enter that number in the text field?
  • Develop an example that illustrates how to create and display a label containing both an icon and a string.

FAQs on Java Programming Notes

1. How can I download notes directly in PDF format for Java Programming?

You can download the Java Programming Notes available in PDF Format through the quick links available on our page. Simply, click on the links and you will be directed to a new page containing the notes. Then, you can click on the download button and save the Java Notes PDF for future reference.

2. What is the best way to learn Java Programming?

The best way to learn Java Programming is by going through reference books, study materials, and notes available to score well and gain indepth subject knowledge.

3. Where can I find the Best Java Programming Reference Books?

Students can get the Java Programming Reference Books suggested by experts from our site. Pick a book of your choice that meets your standards and prepare well for the exam.

Final Words

I hope the information shed on our page has been beneficial to you in clarifying your queries. For any other info needed feel free to reach us via comment section so that we can revert back to you at the earliest possible. Stay connected to our site for more latest updates on Syllabus, Previous Papers, Course Details, Books & Notes.