Notes on Warren Hastings for UPSC civil services examination

Warren Hastings is considered as the brain behind establishing the British Empire in India who was also the first governor-general of Bengal from the year 1772 to the year 1785. He, along with Robert Clive of East India Company, is considered to be the most influential person in the early stages of British rule in India who established their power in the Bengal Presidency after the defeat of Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah in the Battle of Plassey.

In this particular article on notes on Warren Hastings, we have given important facts about Warren Hastings, his contribution to the British rule in the country and how his policies paid the way for 200 years of British rule in India. This article will be useful for students preparing for various competitive examinations such as UPSC civil services, Bank PO exams and other PSU competitive exams.

We have written this article in such a way that the students can use the information both for prelims as well as mains examination of UPSC CSE. This article contains the following:

1. Who is Warren Hastings?
2. What were the reforms implemented under Warren Hastings?
3. What was the impact of Warren Hastings on the Indian subcontinent?
4. Frequently asked questions on Warren Hastings in UPSC examinations

Who is Warren Hastings?

Warren Hastings was a British statesman, who layed the foundation of the mighty British rule in India. He, along with Robert Clive of East India Company, gathered the required unity from various British factions scattered across the country to defeat the Nawab of Bengal and establish British rule for the first time on the solid of the great Indian subcontinent.

Warren Hastings is known as the first governor-general of India other than being the head of the supreme court of Bengal and the governor of the presidency of Fort William in the state of Bengal. Prior to coming to India, Warren Hastings was a British statesman and an influential political figure in Great Britain. Being a close friend of Robert Clive, in the year 1758, Warren Hastings became the British Resident in the Bengal Capital of Murshidabad. The Nawab rule was significant in Bengal before the Battle of Plassey but turned insignificant after the battle while the East India Company improved its foothold in Bengal, Robert Clive gave important political and economic tasks to Warren hustings which gradually led to the souring of the relationship between the Nawab of Bengal and East India Company.

Many historians believe that Warren Hastings was a very sympathetic man towards the problems that Indians faced in Bengal and also helped Mirjafar, the commander in chief under Siraj Ud Daulah, with respect to the demands and orders placed on him by the British East India company.

Before becoming the first governor-general of Bengal, Warren Hastings joined the East India company in the year 1950 as a clerk but soon after his joining he was shipped out to India. He gradually developed an affection towards Indians and Indian culture and tried to learn Urdu and Persian during his stay at Calcutta.

There are plenty of points that one needs to remember about Warren Hastings and we have made the following 10 points for easy reference for an IAS aspirant to remember about Warren Hastings.

1. Warren Hastings was born in the year 1732 and came to India in the year 1750 as a clerk working for the East India Company.
2. When Siraj succeeded his grandfather Nawab Ali Vardi Khan, Warren Hastings and other people from the East India company was imprisoned due to strong anti-British sentiments brought in by the new Nawab of Bengal. This improvement is famously known as the black hole massacre.
3. During the Battle of Plassey, Robert Clive rescued Warren Hastings with the help of British troops from Madras and after establishing the defeat of the nawab of Bengal, he rose to power in the Bengal presidency.
4. Warren Hastings became the first governor-general of Bengal as a result of which he was also the head of the Supreme Court of Bengal and first governor of the presidency of fort Williams.
5. After the battle of Plassey, he helped Mir Jafar become the next Nawab of Bengal.
6. The first Anglo Maratha war and the second anglo Mysore warr was fought under Warren Hastings leadership.
7. Warren Hastings believed that it was necessary for the British Crown to keep Indian kings and rulers in the good books to establish long term relationships and rule in the country.
8. Warren Hastings was impeached in the year 1786 by the house of commons before The House Of Lords in Britain, after being accused of misconduct.
9. Warren hasting left a rich legacy of British control over the Indian provinces and the people of India
10. The future of British rule in India for the next 200 years mainly depended upon the policies and methods used by Warren Hastings and his team in the mid 17th century.

What were the reforms introduced by Warren Hastings?

Warren Hastings, being a politician himself and a member of the house of commons in Britain, had a good knack for the political, economical and social structure of India and he very well knew how it can be used to establish British rule in the country. With that agenda in mind, he introduced various reforms in the country which can be argued in favour or against the Indian population depending on which angle we looked at his reforms from.

The following are some of the most important reforms introduced by Warren Hastings.

1. Warren Hastings was against the idea of the dual system in India where the powers were divided between the Nawab of Bengal and the British Crown under the East India Company. This dual system was abolished by Warren Hastings so that the entire revenue and administrative authority was under the power of the British Crown through the East India Company. This was a significant move to cut down resources for the local rulers so that they can not rebel, in future.,
2. The annual revenues that were paid to formal rulers of Mughal Emperors were also reduced and in some cases completely stoped under this abolition of the dual system headed by Warren Hastings. The main agenda behind abolishing the dual system is to give more power to the British Crown in the administrative, social and economic reforms of India.
3. There were massive changes in the revenue reforms which included shifting the capital from Murshidabad to Calcutta and establishing the Board of Revenue which came directly under the East India Company. Key officers in this Board of Revenue included British collectors and Accountant Generals who were appointed directly from Britain, thereby reducing the Indian influence in the decision making process. One of the most important revenue reforms was doing away with fines and restrictions that were placed by the Nawab of Bengal and other previous Indian rulers on the East India Company so that there was the ease of doing business for the East India company in the country.
4. Some of the main judicial reforms that had a significant impact on Indian society was abolishing the powers of Zamindar and local leaders in Bengal. Under the leadership of Warren Hastings, civil and criminal courts were established in Calcutta. In order to propagate the divide and rule policy, the British rulers abolished the Muslim laws and introduced Hindu laws across the region, in the name of uniformity, where Muslims were tried under these laws which further escalated communal tensions in the region.
5. Uniform tax rate and tariffs rate of 2.5 % for both domestic goods and foreign goods was enforced brutally against the interest of Indians under the leadership of Warren Hastings.
6. In order to gradually transfer the power from East India Company to the British Crown, Warren Hastings restricted private trade by the East India Company officials.

It can easily be said that the reforms that Warren Hastings bought in India were heavily favoured towards the British crown thereby making it easy for them to plunder Indian wealth into Britain. Although most of these reforms were protested and resisted in various forms and means by the people of Bengal, Warren Hastings continued to implement such drastic reforms which provoked Indian rulers and people across the spectrum to revolt against the British crown. This particular era gave way to the birth of one of the greatest freedom struggles the world has ever seen.

In the subsequent section below, we have given a fundamental idea of what was the impact of Warren Hastings that influenced the 200 years of British rule in India and henceforth.

What was the impact of Warren Hastings on the Indian subcontinent?

In a way, Warren Hasting’s policies paved way for the first revolt against the British British Crown in the country. It was because of the brutal nature of the judicial, economic and social reforms that Warren Hastings introduced in our society that was against the interest of Indian people that Indians came together cutting across religious lines to voice their opinions against the British crown.

Many historians believe that although Warren Hasting’s policies were a result of a direct command from the British Council, he always believed that keeping Indians and Indian rulers happy was a long-term strategy to establish British rule in the country. Historians believe that his personal views were far different from the policies that he had administered during his tenure.

Irrespective of what historians say, the policies such as the abolition of the dual system, abolition of judicial powers for the Zamindar, doing away with different religious laws and establishing the court in favour of the British Crown all helped the British East India Company to gain more power in the region and spread their wings across the country, beyond the realms of Bengal. While this is a story from one side of the coin story, from another side of the coin, that is the impact of Warren Hastings on the Indian subcontinent, leading to the unity of Indian people and made them realise that the agenda British rule in India was not to develop the country but to propagate their own vested interests.

Having said that, the policies and the way administration was conducted during his tenure has a lot of lessons for Indian leaders and civil servants in the 21st century. One of the biggest takeaways from the mistakes of Warren Hastings is the centralisation of power which in retrospect was not a good strategy looking at from a long term perspective and the best way to administer our country is through decentralisation of power and giving more influence to the local leaders. Like Warren Hastings, there are plenty of lessons for the Indian leaders in today’s world to learn and unlearn to build a better society. Students preparing for the Indian civil services examination will have to thoroughly study about the impact of Warren Hastings on the Indian subcontinent and how it can be extrapolated to the present-day situation in the country.

Frequently asked questions on Warren Hastings in competitive examinations like UPSC

1. Who was the first governor of Bengal?
Answer – Warrens Hastings was the first governor-general of Bengal
2. What was the dual system?
Answer – Dual system, which was infamously introduced by Robert Clive and abolished by Warren Hastings, was a system in which the east India company had the right to collect revenue while the nizam had the administrative authority.
3. Who headed the Anglo Mysore and Anglo Maratha wars?
Answer- Under the leadership of Warren hasting, Anglo Mysore and Anglo Maratha wars were fought.
4. Who passed the regulating act of 1773?
Answer- Warren Hastings passed the regulating act of 1773.

NCERT Notes on the Battle of Plassey for UPSC exam preparation

The battles and wars that is usually remembered are the ones where millions of people are killed or those instances where the history isre written because of such battles. Battle of Plassey is one such battle where the scale of the battle might be relatively small compared to other historical battles but the importance and the after-effects of these battles changed Indian history for centuries to come.

Battle of Plassey was a small battle fought between Robert Clive of the East India Company presented by the British crown and Siraj-ud-Daula from India who was the Nawab of Bengal.

It is to be noted that the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal had a pretty good relationship in terms of trade for many years before the Battle of Plassey but as and when the British Crown with the help of the East India company gradually started taking advantage of the trade privileges given by the Nawab of Bengal to the British, the relationship started to sour and that ultimately led to the Battle of Plassey.

In this particular article on notes on Battle of Plassey for UPSC exam preparation, we have given fundamental points that one should remember that will most likely be asked in examination such as UPSC and other competitive PSU exams. In this article one can find answers for why the Battle of Plassey was important, why was it fought, what were the causes of Battle of Plassey, what was the impact of Battle of Plassey and what can we learn in today’s India from the Battle of Plassey.

What is the battle of Plassey?

Battle of Plassey was a relatively smaller battle fought between the East India Company headed by Robert Clive and the Nawab of Bengal headed by Siraj Ud Daulah along with his French allies. This battle holds a lot of importance in the Indian modern History because it was after the defeat of Nawab of Bengal at Battle of Plassey that the East India Company and hence the British Crown started entering India with a lot more influence and power which ultimately led to the 200 years of brutal British rule in the country.

Battle of Plassey was fought on the 23rd of June in the year 1757 where the British East India company defeated a much larger Army from the Nawab of Bengal side. While the Battle of Plassey was the first important victory of British in South Asia, this victory helped the company and hence the British Crown seize control of Bengal and eventually dethrone all the kings and kingdoms in India and take control of the entire country.

What started as a purely business relationship between the administration of Bengal and the East India Company ultimately led to dethroning of the kingdoms in India and this explain a lot about how International policies and frameworks should be formulated in today’s world. Now that globalisation is an increasingly important phenomenon across the world and countries are coming closer and closer than ever before, history always teaches us a lesson on how to tread carefully and the impact of the Battle of Plassey is one such lesson that we should keep in mind that will help us in the future in terms of business and foreign policies with other countries around the world.

What were the causes for the Battle of Plassey?

While the actual and long term causes of the Battle of Plassey differ from history book to another history book, in this particular article on the notes on Battle of Plassey, we have given few such causes that gives an all-round idea for an IAS aspirant to understand why the battle of Plassey was fought and however big or small the cause is, can script the history of a country.

  1. Indian kings allowing the entry of East India Company into the Indian territory with a promise of lucrative business without proper agreements and negotiations led to a chain of events ultimately leading to the Battle of Plassey.
  2. The business relationship started becoming sour between Nawab of Bengal and East India Company when the British officers started taking advantage of the trading privileges granted to them by the Bengal kingdom.
  3. Since there were no proper trade agreements between the two, employees of the British East India company stopped paying taxes and duties to the Nawab of Bengal and started taking advantage of the Monopoly situation in the market with practices such as high pricing and black marketing.
  4. The British East India Company kept the Nawab of Bengal in dark in terms of certain business practices which irked the Bengal Presidency leading to the souring of the relationship between the two.
  5. While the relationship between the Nawab and the East India company was deteriorating by the day, the East India company started giving Asylum and other benefits to the Enemies of Nawab such as Krishna Das. This act of East India Company further detoriated the relationship ultimately leading to the battle.
  6. Given the nature of the relationship at that point of time between India and Britain, which was purely trade and commerce, was not in line with the East India Company’s ambition which wanted stakes and had an interest in the political and social environment of the country.
  7. While the Nawab of the Bengal didn’t understand the ambitions of the East India Company, the British Crown was clear of its ambition and wanted to establish their first puppet ruler in the country in Bengal and that is the reason why the Battle of Plassey was initiated by the British East India company.
  8. The first concrete step in the Battle of Plassey was the attack on English Factory at Kasim Bazar by the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj Ud Daulah. This act of Siraj Ud daulah initiated the Battle of Plassey which led to Robert Clive leading his army towards the Nawab at Plassey.

Effects of the Battle of Plassey on Indian history

The battle of Plassey, being the first step for the British crown to enter India has had a cascading effect on the country ever since.

We have made the following points for an IAS aspirant’s easy reference on the effects of the battle of Plassey.

  1. It resulted in the decline of French rule.
  2. There was a change in the nawab of Bengal.
  3. It undoubtedly lead to British entry into the Indian political scenario.
  4. The economy of Bengal, and eventually the economy of the country started to take a nosedive after the war and consolidation of British rule in the country.
  5. Tax policies and economic policies became more brutal in the country after the battle of Plassey.
  6. Personal career of Robert Clive from East India Company improved and he became a member of the British House of Commons.
  7. In a way, the entry of the British helped unite Indians from different classes, castes and religious backgrounds, with a common goal of fighting the British.
  8. After the battle of Plassey, Mir Jafar, who was the new Nawab of Bengal, came into an understanding with the Dutch and led them to attack the British to prove his leadership.
  9. Traditional Indian businesses like pottery, weaving, painting etc, took backstage as the East India Company favoured outsiders into the market and created an unfair market environment in Bengal for localites.
    10. Severe economic and social restrictions led to an uprising movement in Bengal and the rest of the country against British rule.

Frequently asked questions on battle of Plassey in UPSC examination.

1. Why is the battle of Plassey considered historic?

Answer- The battle of Plassey is considered a historic battle in modern Indian history because it was a great way for the British Crown to enter India and rule the country for the next two centuries. Although the battle started between the Nawab of Bengal and the East India Company, the cascading effect that this battle had on neighbouring states makes it an influential and historic battle in the country.

2. Who were the main people involved in the Battle of Plassey?

Answer- the Battle of Plassey mainly involved the Nawab of Bengal and the East India company. From the Bengal side, there were Siraj-Ud-Daulah, who was the Nawab of Bengal, Mir jafar was the commander in chief in the nawaab’s army who turned out to be a traitor and betrayed his own countrymen after being bribed by the British East India Company, Rai Durlabh, another commander in the nawab’s army who also betrayed him. Robert Clive was the main person from the East India Company who was the main reason for the battle. Robert Clive irked the Nawab of Bengal by taking advantage of his trading privileges and giving political Asylum to enemies of Siraj Ud Daulah such as Krishna Das. Another reason why Robert Clive was the main cause of the Battle of Plassey was that he fortified Calcutta without acknowledging nawabs presence

3. What were the main causes of the Battle of Plassey?

Answer- some of the main causes of the Battle of Plassey was the misuse of trading privileges by the East India Company given by the Nawab of Bengal, non-payment of taxes and duties by the employees of the British East India Company, ignoring nawab and his policies in certain business and economic aspects were some among many causes for the battle of Plassey.

Small essay on battle of Plassey for IAS exam preparation

Below, we have given an example of a less than 500-word essay on the battle of Plassey that students can use to prepare for the UPSC mains examination.

In the year 1757 on the 23rd of June, the British East India company waged a Battle against the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies and had a conceived a decisive victory establishing the first formal rule of the British on the Indian subcontinent. Battle of Plassey is considered as a historic battle because it is through this gateway that the British started to gain control over the Indian subcontinent and neighbouring countries such as Afghanistan and Myanmar for the next two centuries.

Battle of Plassey took place on the banks of the Hugli river around hundred miles from Calcutta. The battle was mainly fought between Robert Clive of British East India company and the then Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah, who was also the last independent ruler of Bengal.

While the Nawab of Bengal had a good relationship with the East India company in terms of trading and business, which was one of the reasons of the the Battle of Plassey. The special trading privileges given by the Nawab of Bengal to the British East India company was misused by Robert Clive which provoked the Nawab of Bengal resulting in the battle between the two. Robert Clive, with the support of certain influential people in the Nawab of Bengal’s circle such as Mir Jafar, the commander in chief in the nawab’s army, started fortification of Calcutta and ultimately captured the city in the year 1757 after defeating Siraj Ud daulah at Plassey.

The Black Hole massacre was an important event that took place when the Nawab of Bengal attacked the British East India Company along with his french allies before the beginning of the Battle of Plassey. The black hole massacre refers to a fort in the capital city of Calcutta where the Nawab of Bengal and his Army held British prisoners of war on the night of 28th June in the year 1756. Approximately 64 prisoners were sent to the hole and more than 40 prisoners died with many historians believing that this is the reason for souring of the relationship between the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal.

After the black hole massacre, the British army in Calcutta received massive reinforcement from the rest of the country including Madras to recapture the city. Taking advantage of this atmosphere Robert Clive of the British East India Company started to capture the French word of Chander Nagar.

Although the British East India Company was massively out-numbered by the Nawab of Bengal, Robert Clive and his allies cleverly used certain influential people within the nawaab’s army to settle scores with the Nawab of Bengal.

At the end of the battle, around 3000 soldiers of Colonel Robert Clive defeated Siraj Ud Daula’s army of 50000 soldiers with more than 40 cannons and 15 war elephants. the battle of Plassey, being one of the most influential battles in the Indian subcontinent, helped the British wield power over the Bengal territory which was the main revenue making machine for the country. The defeat of Bengal was just a tipping point and eventually, the British East India Company started to capture neighbouring states and finally the entire country which led to 200 years of brutal British rule in India. The British used the revenues acquired from the defeat of Bengal to expand their colonial powers not just in India but in different colonies across Dutch and French territories.

NCERT Notes on the moderate phase of the Indian National Movement

It shouldn’t come as a surprise that the Indian National Movement against British rule had its own ups and downs and various shades of grey that we are going to discuss in this particular article on notes on the moderate phase of the Indian National Movement. The Indian National Movement, which roughly began in the middle of the 18th century and ended at the mid of the 19th century, had different phases, different leaders from different backgrounds with one cause and one focus which was to weed out the British from India and attain independence.

While the ultimate goal of all the leaders and their followers were the same, the methods used to attain the goal was slightly and in certain cases, largely different, which in itself justifies the diverse nature of the moment and in turn, the diversity that India has.

In this particular article on the notes on the moderate phase of the Indian National Movement, we are going to give you a fundamental idea of who the moderates were, what were their contribution to the Indian National Movement and what makes them “moderates”?

The information given in the notes on the moderate phase of the Indian National Movement can be used by students preparing for Union Public Service Civil services exam or any other competitive exams such as banking exam, probationary officer exam, SSC exam and state civil services exam. The notes given in this article has been tailored well so that it can be used both by first-timers as well as people who have given the exam for more than two to three times.

We suggest that students don’t just read this particular article on the notes on the modern phase of the Indian National Movement but do their own critical thinking and analysis and form opinions on what actually went through during the different phases of the Movement. In fact, the whole point of this article is to make students think critically and logically and come to their own conclusion instead of just following what an author says and that is the reason why in this particular article we haven’t given any conclusion or inference of the moderate phase of the Indian National Movement but we have left it to our readers to form their own opinions and nuances about the same.

Notes on the moderate phase of the Indian National Movement in English for UPSC civil services examination.

What is the Indian National movement?

The Indian National movement mainly refers to the freedom struggle to attain independence from the British Raj in India. The Indian National movement in modern Indian history has been seen in textbooks and notes in different narratives. It basically narrates the story of 200 years of atrocities committed by the British in Indian. It narrates beautiful stories of courage and valour of various Indian from different walks of life who fought the mighty British regime.

Some of the most important people in the Indian National movement are Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Bhagat Singh, Motilal Nehru, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Subash Chandra Bose, BR Ambedkar, to name a few.

Each of the people in the Indian National movement has contributed in their own unique way to the movement and strengthened it gradually. Radicals, moderates and liberals were all part of the Indian National Movement. Everyone in the country, in spite of their ideological and political differences, came together with one single agenda, to weed out the British from India. The radicals, like Bhagat Singh or Sukhdev, with their fundamental and extremists ideology, sought violence and aggression as a way to fight the British atrocities. The liberals, mainly consisting of the intellectual lot, sought a more soothing and diplomatic way to fight the British. The moderate ideology falls somewhere between the radicals and the liberals, the details of which are given further in this article on notes on the moderate phase of the Indian National Movement.

Who are the moderates?

The word moderate itself means average and staying in the middle ground. This is exactly who the moderates were. People occupying the ideological middle ground.

In the context of the Indian National Movement for freedom against the British rule in India, moderates were considered as those people who are loyal to the British way of thinking and believed in the British justice system although many historians have difference of opinion on the definition of the moderates. However, given the nature of actions that moderates took against the British and how it impact and Indian National Movement, it can be said that moderates had a soft corner for the British leaders and their policies as compared to radicalists in the country.

Some of the most prominent moderate leaders in the Indian National Congress who participated in the Indian freedom struggle Dadabhai Naoroji, Chandra Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Subramanyam Aiyar etc.

What was the importance of moderates in the Indian freedom struggle?

The significance and the impact that the moderates had on the Indian freedom struggle was so magnifying and cascading that their methods and ideologies exist even in today’s India. In the name of attaining freedom, moderates bought in open-mindedness among the masses and educated the people in the country on various reforms and drew the thought process of the country in a critical and logical fashion.

Since moderates believed in diplomacy and nonviolence, they believed that one of the strongest tools is to educate the mass and gather their opinion and making people aware of their rights rather than creating propaganda and installing thoughts in the people’s minds. One of the most famous moderate leaders in the country, Mr Gopal Krishna Gokhale said that it is more important to ignite the thought process in people rather than feeding their heads with our own thoughts and opinions.

What was the demand of the moderates?

The following points briefly sum up a few among many demands of the moderates during the Indian National Movement.

  1. Moderate were very strong advocates of freedom of speech and expression and hence they always demanded the removal of restrictions on such fundamental rights in the country.
  2. Moderates wanted the arms act to be removed that were used to suppress power to curb the freedom of people.
  3. One thing that moderates and radicals agreed upon was the separation of the Judiciary from the executive and on this line both of their demands were met significantly by the British regime.
  4. No taxation without representation was actually a slogan by the moderates in the late 18th century which materialised in the early 19th century as a law.
  5. Moderate fought vociferously for educating the public and they demanded that the British increase the spending on educational institutes in the country.
  6. They demanded that the Indian Civil Services examination be conducted in line with that of England so that more and more Indian can get into the administration level in the Indian government.
  7. One of the most brutal acts of the British policies were the unfair operation and land revenue tax. With respect to this atrocity, moderate leaders demanded that the land revenue tax either be decreased or completely be abolished in the country once and for all. Their hard-fought battle bore fruit in the mid 19th century.
  8. The method that moderates used to fulfil the demand is popularly known as 3P, which means prayers, petition, and protest.
  9. Moderates struck a significant role in abolishing salt tax and heavy-duty on sugar exports and imports in the country.
  10. One thing that moderates failed in is to employ the masses to believe and follow their ideology since they mainly confined themselves to educated classes and hence many believe that moderate ideology did not hold water because of lack of mass participation in the country for their ideology.

How successful were the moderates in the struggle for freedom against British Regime in India?

Although moderate had a very brief period of success in the country against the British ideology and their line of thought, the same has been inculcated in the constitution of India and is the fabric of the nation even today.

Some of the successes of moderates are listed below for your easy reference

  1. Although the Indian council’s act of 1892 can be claimed as an achievement of the Indian National Congress, at that time it was the moderates who took a significant step in getting this particular bill passed in the Parliament and hence it can be counted as one of the biggest successes of the moderates. This act strengthened the representation of Indians in the Legislative Council as both additional and non-official members. This was the baby step in attaining full freedom from the British.
  2. Given the nature of people who were part of the Indian National Congress due to the moderate ideology, the political landscape of India changed forever. It was because of moderates that the educated class of the country, including but not limited to lawyers, activists, doctors and engineers took part aggressively in the great Indian freedom struggle.
  3. Before the moderate ideology came to the front, the political landscape of the country was highly divided into the lower class, middle class and intellectuals. It was because the moderates who lead people from a different academic background and ignited them to participate in the Indian freedom struggle with strength and the moment beyond one could imagine or beyond British could comprehend.
  4. The administrative and constitutional reforms that the moderate leaders bought in has had an impact on the policy-making of the country post the independence from the British Raj.
  5. The secular fabric of the nation that we see today, imbibed so well into our constitution, is because of the moderate ideology. Unlike extremists, the moderates were secular in nature and they strongly believed that India is a country of all religions coexisting peacefully.
  6. Moderate ideology was extremely important in the early and mid 19th century because the British tried to bring the Indian National Movement to a halt with their divide and rule policy where they tried to sow the seeds of discord and hatred amongst different religions, especially between Hindus and Muslims. At this point of time, moderates came as an antidote for the poison of hatred built by the British and it helped unite the country beyond ideological differences.
  7. Although the moderate leaders believe that the British rule in India should go away in order for India to become independent, they had great faith in the justice and education reforms brought by the British in the country. It goes without saying that the Western education introduced by the British along with the constitutional ramifications, has made India what it is today, in spite of both having their ups and downs.
  8. Moderate leaders and followers were highly inspired by certain thinkers and philosophers from the western world like Spencer, Bentham, and Burke.

Difference between extremists and moderates



They strongly believed that the British leaders knew the kind of atrocities they were committing against the people of India and continued to do so in spite of that awareness They believed that the British leaders were not aware of the plight of an ordinary Indian on the ground and that is the reason there is so much contempt between the administration and the people
They believed that nothing good came out of the British rule in India except for plundering of our wealth and rampant poverty among the masses. Although the moderate leaders agree that British rule in India did more harm to the country than good, they believed that in certain aspects, British rule was a blessing in disguise for the country, such as abolishing blind beliefs such as the Sati system, the introduction of the Indian railways, introduction of western education, democracy etc.
Their method of fight against the British regime included acts of violence, loot, robbery, murder and other extremist activities in the name of freedom struggle Their method of fighting the British was by using constitutional means. In no way did the moderate leaders propagate violence against the British.
Some of the few popular extremist readers in the Indian Freedom Struggle were Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai. Bal Gangadar Tilak was known as the father of extremism in India A.O. Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Gopal Krishna Gokhale were some of the prominent moderate leaders in the country
Extremist ideology has gradually faded out in the country after India attained independence from British rule in 1947 Moderate ideology is still prevalent and strong in the country even after India attained its independence.

UPSC Indian Administrative Service Salary 2021 | Check Salary of an IAS Officer, Grade-wise Pay Scale, Allowances & IFS, IAS, IRS Salary Details

UPSC IAS Salary details

UPSC IAS Salary 2021: Have you cracked UPSC Indian Administrative Service Exam and want to know the basic Salary, Allowance, etc for IAS Officer? Then, this page is the right choice to attain all the answers to the questions raised in your head. Everyone knows that an amazing job holds a good amount of pay scale or salary package. With an IAS officer job, a candidate can get a chance to serve for India and honor from every person along with a high amount of pay & HRA & Transport allowance.

Hence, we can say that not just lakhs of money attracts the job aspirants but also the powers and responsibilities of the IAS Officer. In the below modules, you will get a clear idea about UPSC IAS Salary in India as well as pay scale, grades, allowances, job profile, salary structure of Indian Administrative Service officer after seventh pay commission, etc.

More to Know:

UPSC IAS Officer Salary 2021 Structure After 7th Pay Commission

Candidates who are looking for the salary structure of the most desired IAS job or post after the UPSC Exam can check the below table. The table includes the basic salary of an IAS Officer per month and can go on high up to a cabinet secretary. Also, aspirants can check the pay level, pay scale for each level of the IAS salary from the table given below. Hence, you can compare Pay band and Pay Level in the table for a fine understanding of the IAS Salary Structure.

Grade Post No. Of Years Old System New System
Grade Pay Pay Scale(INR) Pay Level Basic Pay (INR)
Junior or Lower Time Scale ASP/SDM/ Asst. Commissioner 1-4 5400 15600 – 39100 10 56100
Senior Time Scale ADM/Deputy Secretary/ Undersecretary 5-8 6600 15600 – 39100 11 67700
Junior Administrative DM/ Joint Secretary/ Deputy Secretary 9-12 7600 15600 – 39100 12 78,800
Selection Grade DM/ Special Secretary cum director/ Director 13-16 8700 37400 – 67000 13 1,18,500
Selection Grade Divisional Commissioner/ Secretary Cum Commissioner/ Joint Secretary 16-24 8700 37400 – 67000 14 1,44,200
Super Time Scale Divisional Commissioner/ Principal Secretary/ Additional Secretary 25-30 12000 37400 – 67000 15 1,82,200
Above Super Time Scale Additional Chief Secretary 30-33 NA 80000 (Fixed) 16 2,05,400
Apex Scale Chief Secretary 34-36 NA 90000 (Fixed) 17 2,25,000
Cabinet Secretary Grade Cabinet Secretary of India 37+ years NA 90000 (Fixed) 18 2,50,000

Pay Scale, Grades & Salary of IAS Officer

IAS officers are promoted from junior level to highest position on the basis of the number of years in the service, performance, and experience. The Indian Administrative Service salary structure is divided into 8 grades. Every single grade contains fixed basic pay and grade pay, House Rent Allowance, Dearness Allowance, Medical Allowance, and Conveyance Allowance. All these allowances are discussed elaborately in the below section so have a look at the following table of grade-wise IAS Pay Scale and Grade pay details at first.

Grade Pay Scale Grade Pay Years of Service
Junior Scale INR 50000 -1,50,000 INR 16,500 NA
Senior Time Scale INR 50,000 – 1,50,001 INR 20,000 5 years
Junior Administrative Grade INR 50,000 – 1,50,002 INR 23,000 9 years
Selection Grade INR 1,00,000 – 2,00,000 INR 26,000 12 – 15 years
Super Time Scale INR 1,00,000 – 2,00,000 INR 30,000 17 – 20 years
Above Super Time Scale INR 1,00,000 – 2,00,000 INR 30,000 Varies
Apex Scale INR 2,25,000 (Fixed) NA Varies (around 30 years)
Cabinet Secretary Grade INR 2,25,000 (Fixed) NA Varies

About Indian Administrative Service(IAS) Allowances: HRA, DA & TA

IAS Officer Salary includes basic salary and other allowances like HRA, TA, DA, etc. According to the 7th Pay commission norms, the HRA Allowances is 24 percent, 16 percent, and 8 percent and it depends on the city you have posted. In addition to these, the seventh pay commission has suggested an increase of HRA when DA crosses 50% and 100%. There is no enhancement in Transport allowance.

Do Refer: How to become an IAS Officer in India?

On the other hand, DA which is 125% has been integrated with ongoing Transport Allowance. As well as Pay Band – Grade Pay System which prevails before has stopped by the 7th pay commission. For more information about IAS Officer allowances, check the table below and get to know about different allowances in Indian Administrative Service(IAS) Officer Salary.

HRA Distribution
Class X 8 Cities only- 24% HRA (Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, and Pune)
Class Y Around 100 Towns (With a Population above 5 Lakhs) – 16% HRA
Class Z Rural Areas – 8% HRA
Dearness Allowance
DA DA now crosses 50 to 100 %
Transport Allowance
The Transport allowance is not included in the DA which can reach up to 125% now

IFS Salary Structure, Job Profile

IFS full form is Indian Foreign Services. It gives you to serve the country in the foreign country. A lot of perks are offered to the candidate along with a high salary and many family allowances. You can check the complete details about the salary of UPSC IFS from the table mentioned below:

Grade Rank Basic Pay in INR (as of 7th Pay Commission)
Junior Time Scale Under Secretary 8000
Senior Time Scale Under Secretary 10700
Junior Administrative Scale Deputy Secretary 12750
Selection Grade Counselor Director 15100
Senior Administrative Scale Joint Secretary 18400
High Commissioner/ Ambassador Foreign Secretary 26000

Job Profile and Salary Structure of IPS

The only post that comes with the Uniform is the IPS officer. A candidate who appointed as an IPS Officer will get great power, respect, and prestige along with a good pay scale. The details of the salary structure for UPSC IPS Officer is given below:

Post Basic Pay (INR)
Deputy Superintendent of Police 56,100
Additional Superintendent of Police 67,700
Senior Superintendent of Police 78,800
Deputy Inspector General of Police 1,31,100
Inspector General of Police 1,44,200
Director General of Police 2,05,400
Director General of Police/ Director of IB or CBI 2,25,000

Also Check: Difference Between IAS and IPS & Their Similarities

IRS Pay Scale & Job Profile

The second most sought-after job under UPSC Exam is IRS. The candidates who employed in the role of IRS hold more social value, Indian Revenue Service Officer also provides a fruitful salary. Aspirants can find more details about UPSC IRS Salary structure and job level from the below table:

Designation Pay Scale
Assistant Commissioner of Income Tax INR 15,600 – 39100 + Grade Pay of INR 5400
Deputy Commissioner of Income Tax INR 15,600 – 39100 + Grade Pay of INR 6600
Joint Commissioner of Income Tax INR 15,600 – 39100 + Grade Pay of INR 7600
Additional Commissioner of Income Tax INR 37400 – 67000 + Grade Pay of INR 8700
Commissioner of Income Tax INR 37400 – 67000 + Grade Pay of INR 10000
Principal Commissioner of Income Tax INR 75000 to INR 80000
Chief Commissioner of Income Tax INR 75000 to INR 80000
Principal Chief Commissioner of Income Tax INR 80000 fixed

IAS Salary Perks & Other Facilities

Besides the IAS officer salary, he/she also offered some other perks and benefits as such,

  • Transportation: Vehicles will be provided along with a driver.
  • Service Quarter (3 or 4 BHK): IAS Officers are provided with a service quarter at the place of their posting.
  • Security: Two bodyguards and three home guards are allotted.
  • All Medical expenses will be looked after.
  • Electricity & Water Bills: Completely taken care of or subsidised.
  • Free Phone Call
  • Study leave
  • Abroad Study Option
  • Household Helpers
  • Dearness Allowance (As governed by the inflation index) (at 65 percent)
  • Pensions and Retirement Benefits.

IAS Officer Roles & Responsibilities

  • Maintenance of Law and Order.
  • Collect revenue.
  • Function as courts in revenue matter.
  • Implementation of developmental schemes.
  • Function as Executive Magistrate.
  • Function as Chief Development Officer.
  • Traveling to other places for the implementation of policies.
  • Function as District Development Commissioner.
  • Implementation and supervision of policies of the State Government and Central Government.
  • Supervise the expenditure of public funds as per norms of financial propriety.
  • Handle daily affairs of the government, which includes framing and implementation of policy in consultation with the minister-in-charge.
  • Handle regular proceedings of the government.
  • Contribution in the State secretariat or as head of departments or Public Sector undertakings.

Also, our team of Ncertbooks.Guru prepared the elaborated UPSC Syllabus for efficient exam preparation. So, Candidates are advised to check the UPSC Prelims and Mains Syllabus to kickstart their preparation & crack the job as an IAS officer.

FAQs on UPSC IAS Salary 2021

1. What is the per month Salary of IAS Officers in India?

The basic salary of an Indian Administrative Service officer in India per month starts at Rs. 56,100 with extra allowances like TA, DA, and HRA.

2. What is the IAS salary structure 2021?

The IAS officer salary structure can be like this at the Entry level position or junior scale:

Basic Pay: INR 56,100
Dearness Allowance 2%: INR 1,122
Travel Allowance: INR 3,200
DA on Travel Allowance 125%: INR 4,000
Deduction: (-) INR 6,287
Total: INR 58135

3. Do Indian Administrative Service(IAS) trainees get paid?

Yes, the elected candidates get a certain salary during the training period at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA). In training, officers get Stipend/Special Pay Advance ₹45,000 per month.

Salient Features of Indian Society | Important Features of Indian Society for UPSC Civil Service Examination

Salient Features of Indian Society

Are you looking for guidance on the Salient Features of Indian Society while preparing for UPSC Exam? You have landed on the right page and we will provide you with the entire information. You will find info regarding What is Indian Society, the Features of the Indian Society, and the Significant Issues Stagnating the Indian Society.

By going through the further modules you will learn about the Significant Features of Indian Society in detail in terms of UPSC Perspective. Let’s dive deep into the article and understand why studying about Indian Society is crucial in cracking the UPSC Exam.

What is the Indian Society?

Society is the sum of human relations depending on some common characteristics like tradition, norms, and values. Answering the Question What is Indian Society can be a bit difficult due to Indian Diversity. There is no Common Religion, Caste, or Community the only thing they share in common is being Indian. Indian Society can be described in broad terms with the following features

  • Dynamic and Syncretic
  • Traditionalism with modernity
  • Unity in Diversity
  • Caste and Class
  • Patriarchy
  • Rural and Agrarian
  • Mutual respect and Tolerance
  • Spiritual and Materialistic
  • Individualism and Collectivism

About Indian Society

One thing that is unique about the Indian Society is due to its feature Unity in Diversity. The Name itself suggests oneness the citizens of India enjoy irrespective of culture, ethnic, geographical, and social differences.  Unity in Diversity is best explained when the Citizens of India identify themselves as Indians in spite of their cultural differences.

Accommodation without assimilation is a prominent feature in Indian Society. India welcomed and interacted with various elements of society without making any of them lose their roots and authenticity. Every Indian living here enjoys the freedom to live their own life.

Significant Issues inhibiting the Growth of Indian Society

Below are some of the common issues in Indian Society that are stopping the country in terms of development. These need to be overcome to have an overall growth of the Country.

  • Vast spread regionalism
  • Modern-day urbanization and its problems
  • Various problems arising out of a large population
  • Threat of communalism
  • Apparent social backwardness
  • Effects of globalization of Indian society
  • The vicious cycle of poverty
  • Major developmental issues

Features of Indian Society for UPSC

  • Indian Society is a crucial topic in UPSC Exam Syllabus and appears in UPSC Mains General Studies Paper I
  • It is as important as Indian History, World History, and Physical Geography.
  • In Comparison with other topics Indian Society is fairly easy to study and requires no specific knowledge or mugging up of facts. So, Prepare it without much effort.
  • UPSC Exam will test your level of understanding of Indian Society.

Also, read:

Salient Features of Indian Society for UPSC CSE/ IAS Exam

Have a glance at the Salient Features of Indian Society that you might need as a part of your IAS Exam. They are described in detail in the forthcoming modules.

Merging of Tradition with Modernism

Globalization has bought a surge of modern values and practices. However, Traditionalism is still prevalent in the country, and traditions of the country have made their way to the outside world.

  • Indian Dance and Music have become quite popular along with their Western Counterparts. However, the Fusion of them has been a prominent theme in Arts.
  • Gyms might have gained popularity in the Indian LifeStyle, but Yoga has equal importance.
  • Nuclear Families are common whereas Children still take care of their parents at their Old Age.
  • International Cuisines and Food Habits are equally popular as the Local Ones.

India Society is Syncretic and Dynamic

Our Society Promotes accommodation as well as assimilation. Over the years multiple tribes have lost their core culture due to assimilation into the Indian Society. However, contact with different cultures gave birth to newer practices. Society is becoming dynamic day by day.


  • The increase in the number of particularly vulnerable tribal groups is an example of Assimilation.
  • On the other hand, ethnic tribes such as Naga are struggling to protect their culture from the outside world.


  • Urdu arrives from both Arabic and Hindavi
  • Rashtrapathi Bhawan is an Architectural Splendor created by the fusion of European, Rajput, and Mughal Design.
  • Sufi and Bhakti Movement are complementary to each other.

Underlying Theme Unity in Diversity

Many political thinkers were doubtful regarding India’s amalgamation as one nation due to vast differences in language, culture, etc. Core Values in the Constitution and reorganization of State on basis of language and the efforts made by the government helped in maintaining the Unity intact.


Patriarchy is a family system in which the supreme power lies with male members of the family. Women are considered second class citizens in the patriarchal society. This system hinders the emotional and social development of the fairer sex of the society.

Society is Largely Agrarian and Rural

For more than half of the population in India Agriculture remains the major source of livelihood. Agrarian festivals celebrate the harvest of crops and are celebrated namely as Holi, Lohri, Pongal, Onam, Sankrant, etc. Rural art forms such as Madhubani, Fabric Weaves like Khadi are equally popular in Urban Areas.

Class and Caste Division

The modern Caste System is the result of age-old varna system. Economic Reforms led to flourishing Urban Areas and people are categorized depending on class rather than social identity. However, the emerging class system closely resembles the caste hierarchy. Thus, downtrodden sections are given a chance for upward social mobility.

Coexistence through inter-caste marriages are examples of this.

Tolerance and Mutual Respect

Indian Society has accommodative values of tolerance and mutual respect from the early values. Invaders who entered India and made them this home lead to the co-existence of different cultures.

The mixing of Nagara and Dravid styles led to Vesara style, Arabic and Hindavi to Urdu, Bhakti and Sufi movements (Teachings of Kabir, Guru Nanak, Khwaja Chishti, etc.), Dīn-i Ilāhī of Akbar are good examples of mutual respect.

Final Words

Hope the information shared regarding the Salient Features of Indian Society has shed some light on you. If you need any help as a part of your UPSC Exam Preparation do leave us your queries. Bookmark our site to avail latest updates on UPSC Books, Syllabus, etc. in no time.

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations for UPSC Exam – Complete Study Material & Notes for IAS Prelims

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations is an international treaty that defines the framework for Consular Relation between the Sovereign States.  It began in the year 1963 and counsel performs two functions namely protecting the interests of countrymen in the host country and maintaining the relations between two states. Immunity given to Consular is similar to Diplomat and treaty is ratified by 179 states.

In this article, you will learn all about the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations for UPSC Exam. Use them as a reference and answer all the questions framed on the topic in your IAS Prelims. Score better grades in the UPSC Civil Service Examination by getting a good hold of the concept.

Protection of Consular Premises

  • Receiving State in the case of Armed Conflict need to respect and protect the Consular Premises taking the help of Consular Post and Consular Archives.
  • On the Other hand, the Sending State can entrust the custody of Consular Premises along with Property within and Consular Archives to a third State that is accepted by Receiving State.
  • Sending State can entrust the Protection of its Interests and those of its Nationals to a third State that is accepted by the Receiving State.

Person Declared Non Grata

Receiving State can notify the Sending State at any time that a Consular Officer or any Other Member of the Consular Staff is not Acceptable. In Such a Scenario the Sending State can either recall the Person Concerned or Terminate the Functions with Consular Post.

If at all the Sending State refuses or fails to recall the Person within a specified time the receiving State can either withdraw the exequatur from the concerned person or stop him as a member of consular staff.

Do Refer More Articles:

Vienna Convention Consular Functions

  • Article 5 of the Convention defines the Consular Functions.
  • The Convention has to protect in the receiving state the interests of sending state and its nationals as per the limits permitted by international law.
  • It is responsible for furthering the development of economic, cultural, commercial, and scientific relations between both the Sending and Receiving States.
  • Issues Passports and Travel Documents, Visas, etc. to the Sending State nationals who wish to travel to Sending State.
  • Ascertaining by all lawful means conditions and developments in the economic, cultural, commercial, and scientific life of the receiving State.
  • Subject to the practices and procedures obtaining in the receiving State, representing or arranging appropriate representation for nationals of the sending State before the tribunals and other authorities of the receiving State.

Facilities, Privileges, and Immunities of the Vienna Convention

  • Sending State has all the rights to use its national flag and coat of arms in the Receiving State.
  • Receiving State Authorities shouldn’t enter the Consular Premises Part that is exclusively used for purpose of work of the consular post. And has to move only with the consent of the consular post head.
  • The receiving State needs to take all the necessary steps for protecting the consular premises against any damage or intrusion.
  • Receiving State has to permit and protect freedom of communication on consular post region for all the official purposes needed.
  • Consular Officers are free to communicate with Sending State Nationals and to access them.
  • Competent Authorities of Receiving State should inform the Consular Post of the Sending State if a national is arrested or in a Custody pending trial or detained in any other manner.

Wrapping Up

We wish the knowledge shared regarding the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations has shed some light on you. If you still have any queries do leave us your queries via the comment section so that we can get back to you at the earliest possibility. Keep connected to our site to avail latest updates on UPSC Exam Preparation Related Stuff in no time.