The Mughal Empire Class 7 Questions and Answers History Chapter 4
Class 7 History Chapter 4 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
Match the following-
Fill in the blanks-
1. The capital of Mirza Hakim, Akbar’s half-brother, was …………………
2. The five Deccan Sultanates were Berar, Khandesh, Ahmadnagar ……………… and ………………..
3. If zat determined a manasabdar’s rank and salary, sawar indicated his ……………………..
4. Abul Fazl, Akbar’s friend and Counsellor, helped him frame the idea of ……………….. so that he could govern a society composed of many religions, cultures and castes.
2. Bijapur and Golconda
3. Cavalry men (The horse rider he kept to render military service)
What were the Central provinces under the control of the Mughals?
Delhi, Fatehpur Sikari, and Agra were directly under the control of Mughal emperor. Expect these to run administration efficiently he also appointed Governors. Provinces of Deccan were also under their direct control. There was separation of power in Mughal empire, but all the decisions were taken under the supervision of the Emperor.
What was the relationship between the mansabdar and the Jagir?
The term mansabdar refers to an individual who help the mansab, meaning a rank or a position. Those person who joined the Mughal service were enrolled as mansabdars, while the Jagirs were the salaries received by the mansabdar as revenue assignments. The mansabdar did not actually reside in or administer their Jagir. They had only right to the revenue of their assignments which were collected by the servants while they served in other part of the country.
What was the role of the Zamindar in Mughal administration?
The Mughal used the term Zamindar to describes all intermediaries, whether they were local headmen of villages or a powerful chiefaints.
In some parts of the Mughal empire, they commanded a great deal of power. The exploitation of the Mughal administrators to drive them to rebellion. Sometimes they and the peasant of the same of class allied together to rebelling against Mughal authority. Their revolts challenged the stability of the Mughal empire from the end of the 17th century.
How were the debates with religious scholars important in the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance?
At Fatehpur Sikri in 1570s, Akbar called the meeting of the all the religious head. Ulema, Brahamans, Jesuit Priests and Zoroastrians were those who participated in this meeting held at Ibdatkhana. After a long discussion, their teaching created a division and disharmony amongst his subjects. It eventually led the idea of Sulh-i-Kul. This tolerant idea did not discriminate between people of various castes and focused on a system of ethics such as peace, justice and honesty Abul Fazal helped him in forming a vision governance around the idea of Sulh-i-Kul. The principle of governance was also followed by Jahangir and Shahjahan.
Why did the Mughal emphasise their Timurid and not their Mongol descent?
Mughal underline their Timurid descent not their Mongol descent because they were proud of their Timurid ancestry who had captured Delhi in 1398. They celebrate their genealogy pictorially each ruler getting a picture made of Timur and himself.
How important was the income from land revenue to the stability of the Mughal Empire?
During Akbar’s reign the land revenue system was flawful. The chief sardars and Jagirdars used to grab the major amount of land revenue. Only a small amount was deposited in the royal treasury. Land revenue was an important source of income for the government but it was also inadequate in meeting the public expenditure. The landlords led a luxurious life while the life of the peasants was pitiable.
Akbar knew that his treasury will remain empty if no reforms are done in the land revenue system. As land revenue was a major source of income for the government. With the help of Todar Mai who had made many land reforms during Sher Shah’s period, Akbar introduced many land reforms. He classified land according to its fertility and fixed (Imposed) revenue according to it.
Thus, the income from land revenue helped a lot to the stability of Mughal Empire.
Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars from diverse backgrounds and not just Tutanis and Iranis?
The term mansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a position or rank. As the empire expanded to encompass different regions the Mughals recruited diverse bodies of people. Only Tutanis and Iranis were not sufficient to hold position at different regions. For this reason, mansabdars were included from Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, Marathas and other groups.
Like the Mughal Empire India today is also made up of many social and cultural units. Does the pose a challenge to natural integration?
As in the past, during the Mughal period society was composed of many castes. Even today, society is also composed of many castes, sub-castes, social and cultural units. This can not pose a challenge to natural integration because.
- Our constitution clearly mentions no discrimination on the basis of caste, religion sex etc.
- All religions are equally respected in our country.
- Special privileges are also given to the weaker section of the society for their upliftment.
Peasants were vital for the economy of the Mughal Empire. Do you think that they are as important today ? Has the gap in the income believe the rich and the poor in India changed a great deal for the period of the Mughals?
To some extent peasants are vital for the economy. Now-a-days with the development of industrialisations and technology, the country’s economy depends on these factors rather than peasants. Yes, the gap in the income between the rich and the poor in India has changed a great deal from the period of the Mughal. Today the elite rich are extremely rich. On the other hand, the poor (in villages) can not afford two proper meals a day.
The Mughal Empire left its impact on the different regions of the subcontinent in a variety of ways. Find out if it had any impact in the city, village a region in which you live.
We do find the impact of the Mughal Empire in different region of the subcontinent. For example, the impact of the message “sult-i-kul” (universal peace) in still found in many cities, village, regions, etc.