Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation Class 8 Questions and Answers History Chapter 8
History Class 8 Chapter 8 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
Imagine you were witness to a debate between Mahatma Gandhi and Macaulay on English education. Write a page on the dialogue you heard.
- Macaulay emphasised to teach in the English.
- He felt the knowledge of English would allow Indian to read some of the fixed literature the world had produced.
- He thought that English would make the Indian aware of the developments in western Science and Philosophy.
- Teaching of English would be a way of civilising people charging their testes, value and culture.
- Gandhiji argued that colonial education created a sense of inferiorly in the minds of Indians. It made them see western civilization as superior and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture
- Gandhiji thought there was poison in English education. It was sinful, it enslaved Indians, it cast an evil spell on them.
Match the following :
|(i) William Jones||(a) Promotion of English education|
|(ii) Rabindranath Tagore||(b) Respect for ancient cultures|
|(iii) Thomas Macaulay||(c) Gurus|
|(iv) Mahatma Gandhi||(d) Learning in a natural environment|
|(v) Pathshalas||(e) Critical of English education|
|(i) William Jones||(b) Respect for ancient cultures|
|(ii) Rabindranath Tagore||(d) Learning in a natural environment|
|(iii) Thomas Macaulay||(a) Promotion of English education|
|(iv) Mahatma Gandhi||(e) Critical of English education|
|(v) Pathshalas||(c) Gurus|
State whether True or False :
1. James mill was a severe critic of the Orientalists.
2. The 1854 Despatch on education was in favour of English being introduced as a medium of higher education in India.
3. Mahatma Gandhi thought that promotion of literacy was the most important aim of education.
4. Rabindranath Tagore felt that children ought to be subjected to strict discipline.
Why did William Jones felt the need to study Indian history philosophy and law?
William Jones felt the need to study Indian history, philosophy and law because he had great respect for ancient cultures of India. In his opinion, in order to understand India it was necessary to discover the sacred and legal texts that were produced in the ancient period.
For only these texts could reveal the real ideas and laws of the Hindus and Muslims, and only a new study of these texts could form the basis of future development in India.
Why did James Mill and Thomas Macaulay think that European education was essential in India?
James Mill was one of those who attacked the Orientalists. The British effect, he declared, should not be to teach what the native wanted, or what they respected, in order to please them and ‘win a place in their heart’ The aim of education ought to be teach what was useful and practical. So Indian should be made familiar with the scientific and technical advances that the west had made, rather than with the scientific and sacred literature of the Orient.
Thus Macaulay saw India as an uncivilised country that needed to be civilised. No branch of Eastern knowledge, according to him could be compared to what England had produced. Who could deny, declared Macaulay, “That a single shelf of a good European library was worth the whole native literature of Indian and Arabia”. He urged that the British government in India stop wasting public money in promoting Oriental learning for it was of no practical use.
With great energy and passion, Macaulay emphasised the need to teach the English language. He felt that knowledge of English would make Indians to read some of the finest literature the world had produced; it would allow make them aware of the developments on western science and philosophy. Teaching of English could thus be a way of civilising people, changing their tastes, values and culture.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi want to teach children handicrafts?
Mahatma Gandhi wanted to teach children handicrafts. He wanted people to do work with their hands, learn a craft, and know how different things operated. This would develop their mind and their capacity to understand.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi think education had enslaved Indian?
Mahatma Gandhi argued that colonial education created a sense of inferiority in the minds of Indians. It made than see western civilisation as superior, and destroyed the pride they had in their own culture. There was prison in this education said Mahatma Gandhi, it enslaved Indians; it cast an evil spell on them. Charmed by the west, appreciating everything that came from the west. Indians educated in these institutions began admiring British rule. Mahatma Gandhi wanted an education that could help Indians recover their sense of dignity and self-respect. During the national movement he urged students to leave educational institutions in order to show to the British that Indian were no longer willing to be enslaved.
Mahatma Gandhi strongly felt that Indian languages ought to be the medium of teaching. Education in English crippled Indians distanced them from their own social surroundings, and made them strangers in their own lands. Speaking a foreign tongue, despising local culture the English educated did not know how to relate to the masses.
Find out from your grandparents about what they studied in school.
Our grandparents during their time studied both Indian languages and English. They also learnt about the shastras and vedas. Even Sanskrit was taught to them during that time.
Find out about the history of your school or any other school in the area you live.
Our school, St. Paul’s school Kolkatta has a very old history. It was built during the British time. Most of the children of English studied in this school. It was built on a vast area. It has a church and also many rooms for nuns. Our principal, too, used to stay in one of the large room.
Imagine you are living in the 1850s. You hear of Wood’s Despatch write about your reactions.
I am shocked. How would English language enable Indian to recognise the advantages that flow from the expansion of trade and commerces, and make them see the importance of developing the resources of the country. Introducing European ways of life can change our tastes, customs and life styles. How can European learning improve moral charecter? How can European learning make us truthful and honest? Can any language make us truthful and honest? This is totally nonsense. If sad feeling our made towards the English language and hatred towards our languages, I would request everyone to skip the learning of English language.
Imagine you were born in a poor family in the 1850s. How would you have responded to the new system of government regulated pathshalas?
I would somehow prefer this system because education would be based on textbooks and learning would be tested though a system of annual examination. By this way we can find out which students are intelligent. Examiners can motivate the students to learn more.
Do you know that so percent of the children going to primary school drop out of school by the time they are 13 or 14? Can you think of the varies possible reasons for this facts.
- During that time the main occupation was farming. So children were motivated to do farming.
- Most of the people were poor and could not afford the fees.
- No secondary and teritary services to apply for employment