Colonialism and the City Class 8 Questions and Answers History Chapter 6
History Class 8 Chapter 6 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
Imagine that you are a young man living in Shahjahanabad in 1700 Based on the description of the area in this chapter write an account of your activities during one day of your life.
I am directed to suppose and to do the writing work as instructed in the activity work-Let’s Imagine. I am a young man of twenty years, living in Shahjahanabad in 1700.
1. Aurangzeb is our Emperor. Shahjahanabad is the capital term of the Mughal empire. It is also a trade centre.
2. I used to go to Jama-Masjid daily to offer my Prayer to Allah, at least two times a day. I had to go to colourful world of poetry and dance alone because it was allowed only by men. Women are not allowed to visit colourful world of poetry and dance. I had to avoid celebrations and processions because generally these led to serious conflicts. I generally enjoy Urdu/Persian Culture and poetry and participated in local festivals. I used to go five times daily to offer Namaz in Jama Masjid.
As a resident of the old city, we use to get fresh drinking water to our home. There is an excellent drainage system also. I live in a haveli, which housed many families.
State whether true or false.
1. In the western world, modern cities grew with Industrialisation.
2. Surat and Machlipatnam developed in the nineteenth century.
3. In the twentieth century, the majority of Indians lived in cities.
4. After 1857 no worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for live years.
5. More money was spent on cleaning Old Delhi than New Delhi.
Fill in the blanks :
1. The first structure to successfully use the done was called the …………….. .
2. The two architects who designed New Delhi and Shahjahanabad were …………….. and ………………….. .
3. The British saw overcrowded spaces as ……………………. .
4. In 1888 an extension scheme called the ………………. was devised.
1. minor/tomb/rounded roof building.
2. Shahajahan and Edward Lutyens and Henry Baker.
3. Black areas.
4. Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme.
Identify three differences in the city design of New Delhi and Shahj ahanabad.
The following differences are identified in the city design of New Delhi and Shahjahanbad :
1. Shahjahanbad (was begun in 1639) was constructed as a fort—palace complex and the city adjoining it. On the other hand, New Delhi was built by the British in twentieth century on a modern planning and pattern. Though in 1803, the British gains control over Delhi after defeating the Marathas but up to 1911 Calcutta remained the capital of British India.
2. The main centre point of Shahjahanbad was Lai Quila or the Red Fort, made of red sand stone, Contained the place complex.
The modern city as we know to New Delhi today developed only after 1911 when Delhi become the capital of British India.
3. To Lai Quila (or the Red Fort) west (side) lay the walled city with 14 gates. On the other hand, before 1857, developments in Delhi were some what different from these in other colonial cities (Madras, Bombay and Calcutta), the living spaces of Indians and the British were sharply separated. Indians lived in the “black areas”. Whereas the British lived in well laid out “white areas”.
Who lived in the “white” areas in cities such as Madras?
British and Europeans lived in the “white” areas in the cities such as Madras (New Chennai).
What is meant by de-urbanisation?
Meaning of the term de-urbanisation : Decline and decay of the cities is called de-urbanisation. For example, when the three presidency cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta where urbanising at the sametime, a host of smaller cities declined. Many towns manufacturing specialised goods declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Similarly, earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is often described as de-urbanisation.
Cities such as Machlipatnam, Surat and Seringapatam were de-urbanised during the nineteenth century. By the early twentieth century only 11 per cent of Indians were living in cities.
The historic imperial city of Delhi become a dusty provincial town in the nineteenth century before it was rebuilt as the capital of British India after 1912.
Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although it was not the capital?
The reason for holding a grand durbar in Delhi by the British were as follows :
1. The British were fully aware of the symbolic importance of Delhi. After the Revolt of 1857, many spectacular events were held there. In 1877, Viceroy Lytton organised a Durbar to acknowledge Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. Remember that Calcutta was still the capital of British India, but the grand Durbar was being held in Delhi. During the Revolt, the British had realized that the Mughal emperor was still important to the people and they saw him as their leader. It was, therefore, important to celebrate British power with pomp and show in the city where the Mughal emperors had earlier ruled, and the place which had turned into a rebel stronghold in 1857.
2. In 1911, when king George-V was Crowned in England, a Durbar was held in Delhi to celebrate the occasion. The decision to shift the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was announced at this Durbar.
How did the old city of Delhi change under British rule?
The process of change of the old Delhi under British rule :
1. In 1803, the British gained control of Delhi after defeating the Marathas. Before 1857, developments in Old Delhi were some what different from those in other colonial cities. In Madras, Bombay or Calcutta, the living spaces of Indians and the British were sharply separated. Indians lived in the “black” areas, while the British lived in well-laid-out “white” areas. In Delhi, especially in the first half of the nineteenth century, the British lived along with the wealthier Indians in the walled city.
2. The British learned to enjoy Urdu/Persian Culture and poetry and participated in local festivals. The establishment of the Delhi college in 1792 led to a great intellectual flowering in the sciences as well as the humanities, largely in the Urdu language. Many refer to the period from 1830 to 1857 as a period of the Delhi renaissance.
3. All this changed after 1857. During the Revolt that year, the rebels gathered in the city and persuaded Bahadur Shah to become the leader of the uprising, Delhi remained under rebel control for four months.
4. When the British regained the city, they embarked on a campaign of revenge and plunder. The famous poet Ghalib witnessed the events of the time. This is how he described the ransacking of Delhi in 1857. “When the angry lions (the British) entered the town they killed the helpless and burned houses. Mordes of men and women, commoners and nobleman powered out of Delhi from the three gates and took shelter in small communities and tombs outside the city.”
5. To prevent another rebellion the British exiled Bahadur Shah to Burma (now Myanmar) dismantled his court, razed several of palaces, closed down gardens and built barracks for troops in their places. if) The British wanted Delhi to forget its Mughal past. The area around the fort was completely cleared of gardens, pavilions and mosques (though temples were left intact). The British wanted a clear ground for security reasons.
6. Mosques in particular were either destroyed of put to other uses. For instances, the Zinatal Masjid was converted into a bakery. No worship was allowed in the Jama Masjid for five years. One-third of the city was demolished and its canals were filled up.
7. In the 1870s, the western walls of Shahjahnabad were broken to establish the railway and to allow the city to expand beyond the walls. The British now began living the sprawling civil lines area that came up in the north, away from the Indians in the walled city. The Delhi college was turned into a school and shut down in 1877.
How did the Partition affect life in Delhi?
1. Partition affects the life in Delhi :
Population of Delhi swelled—The partition of India in 1947 led to a massive transfer of population on both sides of the new border. As a result, the population of Delhi swelled. The kinds of jobs people did changed and the culture of the city become different.
2. Riots and killings of the People :
Days after Indian Independence and partitions fierce rioting began. Thousands of people in Delhi were killed and their homes hooted and burned. As streams of Muslims left Delhi for Pakistan, their place was taken by equally large numbers of Sikh and Hindus refugees from Pakistan.
3. Muslims went to Pakistan :
Refugees roamed the streets of Shahjahanabad searching for empty homes to occupy. At times they forced Muslims to leave or sell their properties. Over two-thirds of the Delhi Muslims migrated almost 44,000 homes were abandoned. Terrorised Muslims lived in makeshift camps till they could leave for Pakistan.
4. City of Refugees and Camps Lives :
At the same time. Delhi became a City of Refugees. Nearly 500,000 people were added to Delhi’s population (which had a little over 800,00 people in 1951). Most of these migrants were from Punjab. They stayed in camps, schools, military barracks and gardens, hoping to build new homes.
5. Setting of Houses and Construction of New Towns :
Some got the opportunity to occupy residences that had been vacated : others were housed in refugee colonies. New colonies such as Lajpat Nagar and Tilak Nagar come up at this time.
6. Shops, stalls and Schools and Colleges were opened :
Shops and stalls were set up to cater to the demands of the migrants. Schools and Colleges were also opened.
7. Change in Occupations :
The skills and occupations of the refugees were quite different from those of the people they replaced. Many of the Muslims who went to Pakistan were artisans, petty traders and labourers. The new migrants coming to Delhi were rural landlords, lawyers, teachers, traders and small shopkeepers. Partition changed their lives and their occupations. They had to take up new jobs as hawkers, vendars, carpenters and ironsmiths many, however, prospered in their new businesses.
8. Changes in the social milieu of Delhi :
The large migration from Punjab changed the social milieu of Delhi. An urban culture largely based on Urdu was overshadowed by new tastes and sensibilities in food dress and the arts. (isr) Problems of shortage of water supply and disposal of drainage water: In the past, Mughal Delhi’s formed canals had brought not only fresh drinking water to homes, but also water for other domestic uses. This excellent system of water supply, and drainage was neglected in the nineteenth century. The system of wells (or baolis) also broke down and channels to remove household waste (called effluents) were damaged. This was at a time when the population of the city was continuously growing.
Find out the history of the town you live in or of any town nearby. Check when and how it grew, and how it has changed over the years. You could look at the history of the bazaars, the buildings, cultural institutions, and settlements.
Hints : Architecture in Bombay :
1. Joining of Islands :
Bombay was initially seven islands. As the population grew, the island were joined to create more space and the gradually changed into one big city. Bombay was the commercial capital of colonial India. As the premier part on the western coast it was the centre of international trade.
2. As a Trade Centre :
By the end of the nineteenth century, half the imports and exports of India passed through Bombay. One important item of this trade was opium that the East India Company exported to China. India merchants and middlemen supplied and participated in this trade and they helped integrate.
3. Style of Architecture of Buildings :
The architectural style was usually European. This importation of European styles reflected the imperial vision in several ways. First, it expressed the British desire to create a familiar landscape in an alien country and thus to feel at home in the colony. Second the British felt that European styles would best symbolise their superiority, authority and power.
Make a list of at least ten occupations in the city, town or village to which you belong, and find out now long they have existed. What does this tell you about the changes within this area?
List of ten occupations of my village of town :
- Rearing of animals
- Carpentry or wood-work
As far as agriculture is concerned, the farmers of my area are using tractor and agricultural machines, in place of bull-pulled wooden plough and small traditional old fashioned tools or agricultural implements.
2. Rearing of Animals:
It is being done on large scale. The people have constructed big pukka halls to keep their animals. They have fitted electric fans for buffaloes to provide them cool air during the summer season.
3. Carpentry or wood work:
The carpenters are using latest tools, implements and machines useful in this occupation. New types of articles, furnitures, decorational things are being produced and sold in local as well as outside. Day by Day the economic position of the carpenters is improving.
The black-smiths have increased the production. They are taking help of latest technology. All types of grills, window, doors, iron-rods etc., are being prepared according to needs and demands of the customers, people and markets.
Jewellers and artisans are manufacturing and making different types of ornaments and jewelleries for local people, outside market within the country as well as for international markets also.
Traders have modernizing their occupation. They are giving advertisement in newspapers, magazines as well as on the televisions and radios. Day by day the trade is progressing by leaps and bounds.
Potters of the village are expanding their industry. They are taking help of latest technique, scientific methods, new designs for promotion of pottery industry of our area.
Though some people particularly women are spinning cotton with the old tools, but some are using modern and latest machines for spinning work. It could have happen due to advancement in the field of industralization.
The weavers are using latest machines, chemicals and dyes for weaving, colouring and designing their products. They are exporting their products to different regions of India as well as to other countries due to globalization, liberalization under New Economic Policy of India which has been followed since 1990).
Teachers of our area are using latest books, CDs VDs and TVs also. They are teaching new subjects such as computing to the students. Latest methods and technique of importing education are being utilized. Internet is being used for imparting and promotion of knowledge.
Compare the view in Fig. (a) and that in Fig. (b). Write a paragraph on what the changes depicted in the pictures might have meant to people living in the area.
The picture in fig (a) is over crowded and congested. A large population was living in that place which was polluted and with over drains. No greenery or trees are found in this picture. The lanes and roads were narrow. In the picture in fig. (b), it looks much cleaner and well set. There is greenery and less pollution. Many poor people might have been shifted to other places in order to widen roads, construct large drains, etc.
Imagine yourself walking up Raisina Hill, looking towards Rashtrapati Bhawan. Do you think Baker was right in thinking that looking up to the building would create a sense of awe and empasise the power of the British?
The architect Henry Baher believed that the new capital (New Delhi) would be a remarkable place for the British Government. Yes, I think while watching the Rashtrapati Bhawan we feel a sense of awe. Yes it is indeed a monument that can be remembered again and again. From here India would feel united as nation for the first time under the British rule.
Can you find at least two instances from this chapter that suggest that there were other ways of thinking about the image of the capital city?
The two instances that suggest that there were other ways of thinking about the image of the capital city are :
I can be prepared on totally Indian’s architectural system, design of the ancient India.
Its image could be prepared fully on India-Persian and Roman style.
Think of the life of two young people—one growing up in a haveli and the other in a colonial being a low. What would be the difference in their relationship with the family?
A haveli housed many families. Rooms in the havelis had multiple openings, and using little space for furniture.
One the other hand, colonial bungalows were quite different for the haveli. It was a large single-storeyed structure with a pitched roof.
I would prefer to live in a haveli because here we can enjoy with all members of the family. We can play together, fight together and eat together. We can help each other in all works. In a haveli, there is oneness among all people, cooperation and informal relations. Life would be full of fun.
One the other hand life in a bangalow would be formal. There would be no closeness, because it is meant for a nuclear family. Life would be boring and each would be thinking of himself or herself.