Tribes, Nomads and Settled Communities Class 7 Questions and Answers History Chapter 7
Class 7 History Chapter 7 NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
Match the following :
Fill in the blanks-
1. The new castes emerging within vamas were called ……………… .
2. …………. were historical works written by the Ahoms.
3. The ………….. mentions that Garha Katanga had 70,000 villages.
4. As tribal states became bigger and stronger, they gave land grants to ………….. and …………
1. Jati s
3. Akbar Nama
4. poets, scholars.
State whether True or False:
1. Tribal societies had rich oral traditions.
2. There were no tribal communities in the north-western part of the subcontinent.
3. The chaurasi in Gond states contained several cities.
4. The Bhils lived in the north-eastern part of the subcontinent.
What kinds of exchanges took place between nomadic pastoralists and settled agriculturists?
The nomadic pastoralists exchanged wool, ghee etc. with settled agriculturists for grains, cloth, utensils etc.
How was the administration of the Ahom state organised?
1. The Ahom state depended upon forced labour. Those forced to work for the state were called paiks. Acensus of the population was taken. Each village had to send a number of paiks by rotation. People from heavily populated areas were shifted to less populated places. In this way the Ahom clans were broken up. By the first half of the seventeenth century the administration became quite centralised.
2. Almost all adult members served in the army during war. At other times, they were engaged in building dams, irrigation systems and other public works.
3. Ahoms society was divided into clans or khels. Akhel often controlled several villages. The peasant was given land by his village community. Even the king could not take it away without the community’s consent.
What changes took place in varna based society?
1. As the economy and the needs of society grew, people with new skills were required. Smaller castes, or jatis emerged within vamas. For example, new castes appeared amongst the Brahmanas. On the other hand, many tribes and social groups were taken into caste based society and given the status of jatis. Specialed artisans-smiths, carpenters and masons'” were also recognised as separate jatis by the Brahmans. Jatis, rather then varna, became the basis for organising society.
2. Among the Kshatriyas, new Rajput clans became powerful by the eleventh and twelfth centuries. They belonged to different lineages, such as Hunas, Chandelas, Chalukyas
and others. Many of these clans came to be regarded as Rajputs.
3. With the support of the Brahmanas, many tribes became part of the caste system. But only the leading tribal families could join the ruling class. A large majority joined the lower jatis of caste society. On the other hand, many dominant tribes of Punjab, Sind and the North-West Frontier had adopted Islam quite easily.
How did tribal societies change after being organised into a state ?
The emergence of large states changed the nature of tribal societies. For example, the Gond society gradually got divided into unequal social classes. Brahmanas received land grants from the Gond rajas and became more influential. The Gond chiefs now wished to be recognised as Rajputs. Aman Das, the Gond raja of Garha Katanga, assumed the title of Sangram Shah.
Were the Banjaras important for the economy?
- The Banjaras were the most important trader nomads. Their caravans was called tanda.
- Sultan Alauddin Khilji used the Banjaras to transport grain to the city markets.
- During Jahangir’s reign, the Banjaras carried grains on bullocks from different areas and sold it in the town.
- The Banjaras transported food grains for the Mughal army during military campaigns.
In what ways the history of the Gonds different from that of the Ahoms? Were there any similarities?
|1. The Gonds lived in a vast forested region called Gandwana“ or country inhabited by Gonds. They practised shifting cultivation.
|1. The Ahoms migrated to the Brahmaputra valley from present day Myanmar in the thirteenth century. They created a new state by suppressing the older political system of the bhuiyans (landlords)
|2. The large Gond tribe was further divided into many smaller clans. Each clan had its own raja or rai.
|2. During the sixteenth century, they annexed the kingdom of the Chhutiyas (1523) and of Prochhajo (1581) and subjudged many other tribes.
|3. About the time that the power of the Delhi sultans was declining, a few large Gond kingdoms were beginning to dominate the smaller Gond chiefs.
|3. The Ahoms built a large state, and for this they used firearms as early as the 1530s. By the 1660s they could even make high quality gun powder and cannons.
|4. The Akbar Nama, a history of Akbar’s reign, mentions the Gond kingdom of Garha Katanga that had 70,000 villages.
|4. However, the Ahoms forced many invasions from the south-west. In 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla attacked the Ahom kingdoms. Despite their brave defence, the Ahoms were defeated. But direct Mughal control over the region could not last long.
Plot the location of the tribes mentioned in this chapter on a map. For any two, discuss whether their mode of livelihood was suited to the geography and the environment of the area where they lived.
Hints : Yes, this mode of livelihood was suited to the geography and the environment of the area where they lived. These areas were mostly forested areas.
Find out about present day government policies towards tribal populations and organise a discussion about these.
- Government has reserved some seats in State Assemblies and in Lok Sabha.
- Some seats have been reserved in state and central government also.
- Some economic and education facilities are provided to tribal population.
- Economic, agricultural and industrial development is being provided to them for quick growth and development.
- Their culture, religion, customs are not being disturbed. In short very good and progressive policies are being followed towards tribal population.
Find out more about present day nomadic pastoral groups in the subcontinent. What animals do they keep? Which are the areas frequented by the groups?
- There are several present day nomadic pastoral group in the subcontinent. They keep sheep, goat, cows, camels, horses, etc. Many tribals obtained their livelihood from forests, agriculture, hunting and gathering also.
- Most often they combined their economic activities to make full use of the natural resources of the area in which they lived.
- Some tribes are still nomadic and move from one place to another.
- A tribal nomadic group controlled land and pastures jointly and divide these amongst households according to its own rules.
- Usually they are living in different forests, hills, deserts and places difficult to reach of the subcontinent.
- The Nagas are living in Nagalands. The Ahoms are still living in Assam. The Cheros are living in Jharkhand. The Mundas and Santhals are living in Orissa, Bengal, Bihar and Jharkhand. Kolis are living in Maharashtra highlands and Karnataka. The Banjaras are living in Rajasthan. The Gonds are living in a vast forest region still called Gondwana.