NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation
Text Book Questions
Explain the following:
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny.
(b) In the seventeenth century, merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the villages.
(c) The port of Surat declined by end of the eighteenth”century.
(d) The East India Company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India.
(a) Women workers in Britain attacked the Spinning Jenny because, with its introduction, they lost their jobs. These earlier survived on hand spinning.
(b) The merchants from towns in Europe, during the 17th century began employing peasants and artisans within the villages because they would remain in villages while they would work (weave, spin etc.) for the merchants.
(c) The port of Surat declined by the end of the eighteenth century because the European companies had gained a variety of concessions relating to trade and transit (ports etc.) In the last years of the 17th century the gross value of trade through Surat was ₹ 16 million; by 1740, it slumped to ₹ 3 million.
(d) The East India company appointed gomasthas to supervise weavers in India because they were paid by the company and were company’s servants, hence loyal and faithful.
Write True or False against each statement.
(a) At the end of the nineteenth century, 80 per cent of the total workforce in Europe was employed in the technologically advanced industrial sector.
(b) The international market for fine textiles was dominated by India till the eighteenth century.
(c) The American Civil War resulted in the reduction of cotton exports from India,
(d) The introduction of the fly shuttle enabled handloom workers to improve their productivity.
Explain what is meant by proto-industrialisation.
Proto-industrialisation is the phase of industrialisation ‘when there is a large-scale industrial production, not based on factories.
Why did some industrialists in the nineteenth Europe prefer hand labour over machine?
During the 19th century Europe, especially in England, the industrialists preferred hand labour over machine. The reason was that there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs, waiting for work.
When there is plenty of labour, wages are low. So industrialists had no problem of labour shortage or high wage costs. They did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment.
How did the East India Company procure regular supplies of cotton and silk textiles from Indian weavers?
Following the establishment of political control, the East India Company could assert mono poly right to trade. It proceeded to develop a system of management and control that could end competition, control costs, and ensure regular supplies of cotton and silk goods. This it did through a series of steps.
First; The Company tried to eliminate the existing traders and brokers connected with the cloth trade, and establish a more direct control over the weaver. It appointed a paid servant called the gomastha to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
Second: It prevented Company weavers from dealing with other buyers. One way of doing this was through the system of advances. Once an order was placed, the weavers were given loans to purchase the raw materials for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over the cloth they produced to the gomastna. They could not take it to any other trader.
As loans flowed in and the demand for fine textiles expanded, weavers eagerly took the advances, hoping to earn more. Many weavers had small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated along with weaving, and the produce from this supplied their family needs. Now they had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving.
Imagine that you have been asked to write an article for an encyclopaedia on Britain and the history of cotton. Write your piece using information from the entire chapter.
Britain, following the introduction of industrialisation, became soon the workshops of the world. Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of industrialisation. Britain captured the idea and made inventions in machine, leading to textile/cloth production. Britain was during the 17th century, a buyer of the Indian textiles, but soon, within a century, she become the producer of textile cloth by turning India into a source of a raw-cotton and later made India as the market of its cotton products.
Why did the industrial production increase during the First World War?
The World War I created a dramatically new situation. With British mills busy with war production to meet the needs of the army. Manchester imports into India declined. Suddenly, Indian mills had a vast home market to supply. As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs: jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse and mule, saddles and a host of other items. New factories were set up and old ones ran multiple shifts. Many new workers were employed. Over the war years, industrial production boomed.
Select any one industry in your region and find out its history. How has the technology changed? Where do the workers come from? How are the products advertised and marketed? Try and talk to the employers and some workers to get their views about the industry’s history.
Students to do this, with the help of their teacher.
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 5 The Age of Industrialisation.