NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties
State the various functions political parties perform in a democracy.
1) Contesting elections:
Parties contest – elections. In most democracy, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political – parties. Parties select their candidates in different l ways. In some countries, such as the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidates. Now more and more countries are following this method. In other countries like India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting in elections.
2) Programmes and policies :
Parties put forward different policies and programmes among which the voters choose. Each of us may have different opinions and views on what policies are suitable for the society. But no government can handle such a large variety of views. In a democracy, a large number of similar opinions , have to be grouped together to provide a direction in which policies can be formulated by the government. This is what the parties do A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a few basic positions which it supports. A government is expected to base its policies on the line taken by the ruling party.
3) Law making :
Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Formally, laws are debated and passed in the legislature. But since most of the members belong to a party, they go by the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions.
4) Form and Run Government:
Parties form and run government policy, the big decisions are taken by political executive that comes from political parties. Parties recruit leaders train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way party wants
5) Role of opposition:
Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power by voicing different views and criticizing government for its failures or wrong policies. Opposition parties also mobilize opposition to the government
6) Shaping Public Opinion :
Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues. Parties have lakhs of members and activist spread I all over the country. Many of the pressure groups the extensions of political parties among different sections, Parties sometimes also launch movement for the resolution of problems faced by people. Often opinions in. the society Crystalise on the lines parties take
7) Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by government. For an ordinary citizen it is easy to approach a local party leader than a government officer. That is why they feel close to parties even when they do not fully trust them. Parties have to be responsive to people’s needs and demands. Otherwise people can reject those parties in the next elections.
What are the various challenges faced by a political party?
1) Lack of internal democracy: The first challenge is that of lack of internal democracy within parties. A,II over the world there is a tendency in political parties towards the concentration of power in one or few leaders at the top Parties do not have open list of its members, do not hold its routine organisational meetings, fail to conduct its internal elections regularly and refuse to share information. Ordinary members of the party do not get sufficient information on what happens inside the party. They do not have the means or the connections needed to influence the decisions. As a result the leaders assume greater power to make decisions in the name of the party. Since one or few leaders exercise paramount power in the party, those who disagree with leadership find it difficult to continue in the party. More than loyalty to party principles and policies, personal loyalty to the leader becomes more important.
2) Dynastic succession:
The second challenge of dynastic Succession relates to the first one Since most political parties do practice open and transparent procedures for their functioning, there are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party. Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to favour people close to them or even their family members: In many parties, the top positions are always controlled by members of one family. This is unfair to other members of that party. This is also bad for democracy, since people who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power. This tendency is present in some measure all over the world. But its effect is stronger in India and its neighbouring democracies
3) Role of money and muscle power :
The third challenge is about the growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections. Since parties are focussed only on winning elections, they tend to use shortcuts to win elections. They tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party. In som cases parties support criminals who can win elections. Democrats all over the world are worried about the increasing role of rich people and big companies in democratic politics.
4) No mean meaningful choice to the voters:
The fourth challenge is that very often parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters. In order to offer meaningful choice, parties must be significantly different. In recent years there has been a decline in the ideological differences among parties in most parts of the world. For example, the difference between the Labour Party and the Conservative Party in Britain is very little. They agree on more fundamental aspects but differ only in details on how policies are to be framed and implemented. In our country too, the differences among all the major parties on the economic policies have reduced. Those who want really different policies have no option available to them. Sometimes people can’t even elect very different leaders either, because the same set of leaders keep shifting from one party to another.
Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well.
1) A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties, It should be made compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of its members, to follow its own constitution, to have an independent authority to act as a judge in case of party disputes, to hold open elections to the highest posts
2) It should be made mandatory for political parties to give a minimum number of tickets, about one-third, to women candidates. Similarly there should be a quota for women in the decision making bodies of the party
3) There should be state funding of elections. The government should give parties money to support their election expenses. This support could be given in kind petrol, paper, telephone etc. Or it could be given in cash on the basis of the votes secured by the party in the last election.
4) People can put pressure on political parties. This can be done through petitions publicity and agitation. Ordinary citizens, pressure groups and movements and the media can play an important role in this. If political parties feel that they would lose public support by not taking up reforms, they would become more serious about reforms.
5) Political parties can improve if those who want this join political parties.
What is a political party?
A group of people who come together to contest elections, and form and run government by holding power in the government.
What are the characteristics of a political party?
(i) A Certain Organization:
Every party has a certain structure. The group of people is organized in a proper way. Every member is aware of his role and responsibilities in the party.
(ii) Unity of Purpose:
All the members agree on some policies and programmes for the society. The party has its own vision and ideology. Every member works in accordance with the goals and objectives of the party.
(iii) Commitment to Adhere to Constitutional Means :
All the political parties agree that the competition at the time of elections should be free and fair. They would contest the elections and agree to the results of the voting system.
(iv) Adhere to its Policies when Voted to Power :
All the parties have the characteristics that they willadhere to the declared parties have the characteristic that they will policies when voted to power They cannot implement completely different policies after coming to power
Group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government is called a ………….
Match list 1 (organization and struggles) with list 2 and select the correct answer using the codes given below the list.
Listl List 2
|List I||List II|
|1. Congress Party||A. National Democratic Alliance|
|2. Bharatiya Janta Party||B. State Party|
|3. Communist Party of India (Marxist)||C. United Progressive Alliance|
|4. Telugu Desam Party||D. Left Front|
(c) C, A, D, B
Who among the following is the founder of the Bahujan Samaj party?
(d) Jotiba phule
(a) Kanshi Ram
What is the guiding philosophy of the Bhartiya Janta party?
(a) Bahujan Samaj
(b) Revolutionary democracy
(c) Integral humanism
(c) Integral humanism
Consider the following statements on parties.
A. Political party do not enjoy much trust among the people.
B. Parties are often rocked by scandals involving top party leaders.
C. Parties are not necessary to run governments.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) A, B and C
(b) A and B
(c) B and C
(d) A and C
(b) A and B
Read the following passage and answer the question given below. Mohammad Yunus is a famous economist of Bangladesh. He received several international honors for his effort to promote economics and Social Development for benefits of the poor. He and the grameen bank started jointly received the Nobel Peace Prize for the years 2006. In February 2007, he decided to launch a political party and contest in the party parliamentary election, His objective was a foster proper leadership, governance and build a new Bangladesh. He felt that only a political party different from the traditional ones would bring about new political culture. His party would be Democratic from the grassroot level. The launching of new party called Nagrik Shakti. (citizen’s power) has caused a stir Among that Bangladeshi, while many welcomed this decision, some did not like it. ‘Now I think Bangladesh will have a chance to choose between good and bad and eventually have a good government’, said Shahedul Islam, a government official. ‘That government, we hope, would not only keep itself away from corruption, but also make fighting corruption and black money a top priority.
But leaders of traditional political parties who dominated the country’s politics for decades were apprehensive. There was no debate (over him) winning the Noble, but politics in different – very Challenging and often controversial ,” said a senior leader of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. Some other are highly critical. They asked why he was rushing into politics. ” Is he planted In politics by mentors from outside the country/’asked one political Observer.
Do you think Yunus made a right decision to float a new political party? Do you agree with the statements and fears expressed by various people? Do you want this new party organised to make it different from other parties? If you were the one to begin this political party how would you defend it?
(i) Yunus’s decision to float a new party was right.
(ii) We do agree with Shahedul Islam’s statement that floating of the new political party may change the political culture of the Country. But we cannot agree with the view of the senior leader of BNP because he feel that the party might prove a threat to his own party.
(iii) (a) The new party should be democratic from the core and give importance to interna! democracy as well.
(b) It should frame his programmes and policies in such a way that all round development of the country should take place.
(c) Social integration and equality for all should be kept in mind.
(iv) (a) Since existing parties have not performed their duties Towards their democratic responsibilities upto the standard , so Launching of a new political party is justified.
(b) Its aim is to foster proper leadership, good governance and build a new Bangladesh.
(c) The existing political parties are not working towards Strengthening democracy in the country, instead they are busy making Money.
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 6 Political Parties.