Words and Expressions Class 9 Solutions | NCERT Class 9 Words and Expressions Solutions

Class 9 English Workbook Words and Expressions Solutions

Words and Expressions Class 10 Solutions | NCERT Class 10 Words and Expressions Solutions

Class 10 English Workbook Words and Expressions Solutions

NCERT Important Extra Questions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12

NCERT Important Extra Questions for Classes 6 to 12:  Students who preparing for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 CBSE board exams need a thorough practice and preparation to attain a good score in the board examinations. You all have to practice a good amount of questions from each and every concept to understand the topic thoroughly and secure great marks in the exams. In this article, we have jotted down the NCERT Important Extra Questions Solutions for Class 6 to Class 12 for all the subjects updated for a new academic session in PDF format.

You can refer to NCERT Solutions to revise the concepts in the syllabus effectively and improve your chances of securing high marks in your board exams.

NCERT Important Extra Questions and Answers PDF for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Based on the new marking scheme, we have given detailed solutions for all questions. So, access the below PDF links and get all subjects NCERT CBSE Extra Questions with Solutions for classes 12 to 6.

Extra Questions for Class 10 (कक्षा 10 के लिए अतिरिक्त प्रश्न)

Extra Questions for Class 9

Extra Questions for Class 8

Extra Questions for Class 7

Extra Questions for Class 6

Extra Questions for Class 5

Extra Questions for Class 12

Extra Questions for Class 11

FAQS on NCERT Extra Important Questions PDF for Class 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6

1. Why Solve NCERT Important Extra Questions?

By solving the NCERT Extra Questions Solutions PDF, students can ace up their preparation & score good grades in board exams.

2. Where can I find 6th to 12th Class NCERT Extra Questions and Answers for all subjects?

Learninsta.com helps students to find all subjects NCERT extra questions solutions PDF for class 12th to class 6th in direct links for easy access while preparing for the board exams.

3. Can I download NCERT CBSE Extra Questions Solutions in PDF format?

Yes, you can download NCERT Class 6 to Class 12 Extra Questions and Answers in PDF format for free from our page.

Revision Notes for CBSE Class 6 to 12 PDF Download

While preparing for examinations it is very important to have good study notes for revision. To make your preparation ace up, we offer you the most refined and effective CBSE Notes for our esteemed users. CBSE notes from Ncertbooks.guru will provide you a summary of all the important and relevant topics as well as highlight the significant references.

Maintaining a habit of taking notes not only helps you in your school education but also in your professional career as well. After your school, when you enter the workplace, there are many scenarios where you would be taking notes for example taking minutes of meetings, conversations, summarizing the training or conferences etc.

CBSE notes are a great way which will help the school students to realize the importance of concepts which are covered in class. Even if you are a student who has a great memory, even then you won’t be able to retain everything taught in class.

But if you maintain a written notes or record, the retaining power increases multi folds. Moving on to higher classes such as from class 6 onward’s, teachers expect you to be grown up and avoid spoon feeding the students.

Students are expected to make their own notes of whatever is taught in the class. Ideally hand made notes are considered the best but still in case you didn’t have time to prepare your notes or are running out of time due to exam pressure then you can download the latest and most effective CBSE notes for all classes from the link given below.

CBSE Class 6 to 12 Revision Notes – Free PDF Download

CBSE Revision Notes – Class 12 

CBSE Revision Notes – Class 11

CBSE Notes – Class 10

CBSE Notes – Class 9

CBSE Notes – Class 8

CBSE Notes – Class 7

CBSE Notes – Class 6

You can use them for preparing in daily routine or a quick revision for exams. Studying from notes will help you skip reading those boring chapters again and again. Notes play a very important role in self study. You don’t need any coaching or tuition; just follow these CBSE notes which are designed by following the latest syllabus issued by Central Board of Secondary Education.

Also, studying from these notes will help you in having a better preparation level for your next exam. You can simply read the notes and directly jump to solving the questions.

The study notes prepared by ncertbooks.guru have been derived from the latest NCERT books and as per the latest marking standards by CBSE. If a student is well equipped with these notes, then he/she can answer any question. This will definitely boost his/her confidence and will help him secure good marks in school or board examination.

Make sure that you go through them every day for a sound preparation for your exams. If in case you feel any problem, feel free to connect with us. We will contact you asap.

Some salient features of notes are

  1. The notes are very easy to understand and grasp.
  2. Studying from notes will save a lot of time.
  3. The notes contain all the important ideas and concepts which would have been taught in class and NCERT books.
  4. It will help in a proper and channelised preparation for your exam.
  5. The notes are prepared by collecting extracts from NCERT books as well as some standard books strictly based over CBSE pattern.
  6. All the diagrams and other reference illustrations are also provided.
  7. Studying from notes will help you write any answer in exam.
  8. The notes will make you confident and you will feel well acquainted with it.
  9. You can easily revise it again and again that too at any time and anywhere.

Save your notes

  1. We recommend taking printout of the notes and place them in a folder or file. This will keep them secure at one place and avoid the risk of misplacement.
  2. Make sure that you staple all the pages. You can misplace any study notes if they are kept loose.
  3. Another option is that you can save them on your laptop and can refer them anytime you want.
  4. You can also directly view them by just clicking on the link give below.
  5. Make spate folder (online and offline both) for separate subjects. If you are using a hard copy, place them safely in your cupboard or study table.
  6. If you are saving them on your computer make sure that they are properly saved in a directory and it should not be deleted by mistake.

We also recommend that, if you have spare time you can explore internet for online tutorials if you are unable to grasp any concepts. There are several videos available over YouTube which you can watch if any of your concepts is unclear.

Ncertbooks.guru is the hub for the latest books pertaining to school education. Books such as NCERT books, ICSE books, Solutions for all the books, standard books, notes, previous year question papers, NCERT exemplars are absolutely free to download.

So, give an x-factor to your preparation by studying smartly with ncertbooks.guru.

ICSE vs CBSE Board | Difference between CBSE and ICSE Courses

Difference between CBSE and ICSE Courses

Right from the birth of a child, parents start planning to choose the right education system for their children. They dream to make them competent, qualified, and confident to qualify all the levels of life.

In India, while thinking about education, the dilemma of selecting the board of education has always been like a challenge for parents. Basically, the Indian education system has the two most popular education systems which are CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) and ICSE (Indian Certificate of Secondary Education). While selecting the education, most of the time, parents got confused to decide which one is better. The following article has been assembled to let you know the difference between CBSE and ICSE courses

ICSE vs CBSE Board

Be it any board, every student regrets their choice of board preference, owing to the perception built by them for their respective boards. However, all these thoughts are mere thoughts and you don’t have to really bother much about this. If you are still confused then this article will bring you out of it. So here we have given a detailed comparison between both the boards.

  • Syllabus – If you look at the syllabus, you will find that the syllabus of the CBSE board will be really helpful if you are preparing for competitive exams like JEE or NEET, etc. Because CBSE Syllabus is much better when it comes to theoretical knowledge. But when it comes to practical knowledge ICSE syllabus has the upper hand.
  • Easability – CBSE Syllabus is found to be much easier, well structured, and compact as compared to ICSE Syllabus. While ICSE follows a higher level of English language than the rest of the boards, CBSE does not have a special preference for the English Language. A higher level of English language in ICSE assists the students to perform better in exams like TOEFL.
  • Acceptability – CBSE Board marks are widely accepted nearly all over the universities irrespective of the course you are opting for. For foreign schools and universities, ICSE Certification is much preferred.
  • Level of Explanation – ICSE Syllabus is considered to be more extensive which can be an advantage for some but a disadvantage for others. CBSE syllabus is found to be more precise and to the point.
  • Difficulty Level – ICSE Syllabus is considered to be more difficult than CBSE. That is because the ICSE syllabus has more internal assessments and concepts that can be applied to practicals as well.
  • Transferability – When it’s come to traveling frequently. It is better if you choose CBSE because you won’t find more ICSE schools in the country.
  • Range of Subjects – The range of the subjects that ICSE covers is huge. ICSE offers a variety of languages like English, Hindi, Kanada, Tamil, Telugu, and others. ICSE even has subjects for Fashion Design, Agriculture, Home Science, and Cookery for creative minds. ICSE syllabus can be your best option if you are aspiring to become an athlete, visual artist, scientist, or an all-rounder.
  • Grading System – The Grading System for CBSE is Alphabetical based. While for ICSE, the marks are shown in numbers which gives a clear idea to students as to how much he/she has actually scored.
  • Regular and Private Candidates – Students who do not belong to CBSE affiliated schools or non-regular candidates are eligible to appear for CBSE Exams. But the same is not true for ICSE. Students have to be from ICSE affiliated schools in order to appear for ICSE exams.
  • Medium of Instructions – CBSE gives instructions in English as well as in Hindi but ICSE follows only English.

Merits of ICSE courses

  • ICSE offers a vast syllabus as it gives significance to all subjects. The parents want to make their students proficient in all subjects, ICSE will be the better option for them.
  • ICSE syllabus is thorough, well-known structured, and competent to turn the students more practical. Moreover, the ICSE students are flexible to choose specific subjects.
  • ICSE offers a balanced syllabus that helps the students to gain knowledge of all areas. In this, the students need to put equal emphasis on all subjects.
  • ICSE syllabus is well-recommended for students who want to choose Management as a career.
  • ICSE or CISCE is recognized by the international education systems. The students passed out with ICSE courses are accepted worldwide. In Brief, ICSE courses are beneficial for parents thinking to move to foreign countries for some time.
  • ICSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) exams consider internal assessments more as well as these are relevant for hiking up overall courses. Thereby, parents who prefer that their children should get equal theoretical as well as practical knowledge, ICSE courses are designed for them.
  • ICSE students can achieve scholarships easily as they have a sound base in English. Moreover, they can start their career as English literature or as a writer.

Merits of CBSE courses

  • CBSE is a popular board of education in India as 70% of schools offer CBSE courses. This option is perfect for parents to have transferable jobs as they can get admitted their children to CBSE schools, thereby, students can start studying the same pattern of their syllabus.
  • CBSE syllabus has designed in a way that puts more emphasis on mathematics and science subjects.
  • Both English and Hindi language as a medium of instruction are used in CBSE courses. It means the students have lack English skills can join this course.
  • CBSE is a board-approved by the Indian government. It has affiliated by prominent schools comprising central schools in India.
  • CBSE is recognized by National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
  • CBSE approves private as well as regular candidates.
  • CBSE is recommended for students who will like to give competitive exams such as AIEEE (All Indian Engineering Entrance Exam), JEE (Indian Institute of Technology Joint Entrance Exam), AIPMT (All India Pre Medical Test). In brief, this board is recommended if students want to continue their career in Engineering and Science Sections.
  • CBSE syllabus is less than ICSE (Indian Certificate of Secondary Education). Thus, as parents, if you think your child can’t learn a massive syllabus, then admit him/her in the school that offers a CBSE course.

ICSE vs CBSE | Major Differences between two boards

Teaching Style – Both the boards have very well understood the importance of learning in an active manner. CBSE and ICSE follow their approach to teach the next generation in a manner that they think is right. Over the past few years, both boards have changed their style of teaching. Both of them are trying to implement a teaching methodology where students learn through experience and experimentation instead of following rote learning.

In India, many parents feel that the CBSE Standard of Education is not up to the level of what ICSE offers. CBSE board needs to improve its overall teaching technique when compared to the ICSE board. ICSE prefers detailed study and focuses more on English Literature and English Language. ICSE board is considered to be more flexible in nature. However, both the boards are recognized by most of the colleges and universities. Still, the CBSE curriculum has failed to provide students with the academic freedom that their students need.

ICSE vs CBSE Board

ICSE vs CBSE | Pros, and Cons of CBSE


  1. Most of the competitive exams like JEE Main, NEET are based on the syllabus of the CBSE Board.
  2. The syllabus of the CBSE Board is much easier when compared to ICSE. Because the syllabus comprises of a more compact structure and a fewer subject. Secondary subjects are not mandatory. Subjects like Physics, Chemistry, and Biology are categorized under Science and History, Geography and Civics are categorized under Social Science.
  3. CBSE schools are more in the country. So if your parents have to transfer from one city to another then CBSE is the right choice for you.
  4. CBSE syllabus lays more importance on subjects like science and mathematics.


  1. Even though there are practical subjects, the focus is not more on practical knowledge. Core English Language has not been the major focus of this board when compared to other boards.
  2. In CBSE, all the subjects are handled only in a manner that is theory-based and there is less importance laid upon real-life concepts. Despite application playing a major role in CBSE Syllabus, it pays less emphasis on in-depth understanding.

Also, Read:

ICSE vs CBSE | Pros, and Cons of ICSE


  1. A more comprehensive and complete syllabus is followed by ICSE Board covering all subjects with equal importance.
  2. Those students who would like to pursue a career in the field of management and humanities will find ICSE more interesting and worthwhile.
  3. ICSE certificates are recognized and followed across the globe especially by foreign schools and universities in comparison to CBSE certificates.
  4. Since more importance is given to English, students have an upper hand when it comes to exams like TOEFL.
  5. Students get more flexibility when it comes to selecting specific subjects.


  1. Students might feel that the subjects are more extensive and can be a burden for some.
  2. Although the syllabus is extensive which can be helpful for future education. But when it comes to ISC Exam, the checking is more strict and hence it affects the marks.

In brief, both Indian boards are well-recommend ed. It depends upon the competencies of your children to whom they will score well. With the day by day activities, you can know the interest of your children.

If they are showing more interest in environmental conditions or natural science, it will be appreciated if you admit them to CBSE schools.

If you want your children will be efficient in all streams, make sure to choose the ICSE board for them.
Moreover, both Indian education systems are worthwhile. Choosing anyone for your children will be the best.


1. Which board is better ICSE or CBSE?

If you want your child to be efficient in all streams ICSE Board would be better.

2. Is ICSE Syllabus Tough?

Yes, ICSE Syllabus is difficult but with enough practice, you won’t feel the difficulty and you can have strong practical knowledge through it.

3. Which board is best for Education in India?

CBSE is considered to be the most common and accepted board in India.

4. Which website offers the merits and demerits of ICSE and CBSE in detail?

NCERTBooks.Guru Offers the merits and demerits of ICSE and CBSE in detail.

5. What is CBSE full form?

CBSE full form is the Central Board of Secondary Education.

6. What is ICSE full form?

ICSE full form is the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education.

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 The Indian Constitution (Hindi Medium)

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 The Indian Constitution (Hindi Medium)

These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science in Hindi Medium. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 The Indian Constitution.

पाठगत प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
मूलभूत (Constitutive) शब्द से आप क्या समझते हैं? अपने रोजमर्रा के जीवन के आधार पर मूलभूत नियम का एक उदाहरण दें।
[एनसीईआरटी पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-6]
मूलभूत शब्द का अभिप्राय है-मौलिक या आवश्यक।
उदाहरण-यदि हम कोई खेल खेलना चाहते हैं तो हमें उस खेल के मूलभूत नियम जानने होंगे।

प्रश्न 2.
नेपाल की जनता एक नया संविधान क्यों चाहती थी? [एनसीईआरटी पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-6]
1990 में बने नेपाल के संविधान के अनुसार नेपाल में राजतंत्र की स्थापना की गई थी। नेपाल के लोग नेपाल में लोकतंत्र की स्थापना करना चाहते थे इसलिए वे नया संविधान चाहते थे।

प्रश्न 3.
अपने शिक्षक के साथ चर्चा करें कि राज्य और सरकार के बीच क्या फर्क होता है। [एन.सी.ई.आर.टी. पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-13]
राज्य-राज्य एक ऐसी राजनीतिक संस्था होती है जो निश्चित भू-भाग में रहने वाले संप्रभु लोगों का प्रतिनिधित्व करती हैं; जैसे-भारत राज्य, चीन राज्य आदि।
सरकार-सरकार कानून बनाती है और उन्हें लागू करती है। सरकार को चुनावों के द्वारा बदला जा सकता है।

प्रश्न 4.
निम्नलिखित परिस्थितियों में कौन से मौलिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन हो रहा है [एन.सी.ई.आर.टी. पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-14]
(1) यदि 13 साल का एक बच्चा कालीन के कारखाने में मजदूरी करता है।
(2) यदि किसी राज्य का कोई नेता दूसरे राज्यों के लोगों को अपने राज्य में काम करने से रोकता है।
(3) यदि किसी जनसमूह को राजस्थान में तेलुगु माध्यम का स्कूल खोलने की अनुमति नहीं दी जाती है।
(4) यदि सरकार सशस्त्र बलों में कार्यरत किसी अधिकारी को इसलिए पदोन्नति नहीं दे रही है, क्योंकि वह अधिकारी महिला है।
निम्नलिखित मौलिक अधिकारों का उल्लंघन हो रहा है

  1. शोषण के विरुद्ध अधिकार का उल्लंघन हो रहा है।
  2. स्वतंत्रता के अधिकार का उल्लंघन हो रहा है।
  3. सांस्कृतिक और शैक्षणिक अधिकार का उल्लंघन हो रहा है।
  4. समानता के अधिकार का उल्लंघन हो रहा है।

प्रश्न 5.
संविधान में मूल कर्तव्यों का भी उल्लेख किया गया है। अपने शिक्षक की सहायता से पता लगाएँ | कि ये कर्त्तव्य कौन से हैं और लोकतंत्र में नागरिकों द्वारा इन कर्तव्यों का पालन करना क्यों महत्त्वपूर्ण है? [एन.सी.ई.आर.टी. पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-15]
हमारे मूल कर्त्तव्य

  1.  संविधान का पालन करना तथा राष्ट्रध्वज एवं राष्ट्र गान का सम्मान करना।
  2. भारत की संप्रभुता, एकता और अखंडता को कायम रखना तथा रक्षा करना।
  3. राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन के प्रेरक विचारों को संजोए रखना और पालन करना।
  4. सार्वजनिक संपत्ति की रक्षा करना और हिंसा से दूर रहना।
  5. वैज्ञानिक दृष्टिकोण, मानववाद और ज्ञानार्जन तथा सुधार की भावना का विकास करना।

चित्र आधारित प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
मॉनीटर अपनी शक्ति का किस तरह दुरुपयोग कर रहा है? [एन.सी.ई.आर.टी. पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-7]
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 (Hindi Medium) 1
मॉनीटर एक दबंग किस्म का लड़का है। वह अपनी शिक्षिका की अनुपस्थिति में एक बेकुसूर सहपाठी को तंग करता है तथा शिक्षिका के लौटने पर उसकी झूठी शिकायत भी करता है तथा सजा दिलवाता है।

प्रश्न 2.
नीचे दी गई किस परिस्थिति में मंत्री को अपनी सत्ता के दुरुपयोग का दोषी कहा जाएगा
(क) जब वह ठोस तकनीकी कारणों से अपने मंत्रालय की किसी परियोजना को नामंजूर कर देता है;
(ख) जब वह अपने पड़ोसी को अपने सुरक्षाकर्मियों से पिटवाने की धमकी देता है;
(ग) जब वह थाने में फ़ोन करके पुलिस अधिकारियों पर दबाव डालता है कि उसके किसी दोषी | रिश्तेदार के खिलाफ़ एफ.आई.आर. दर्ज न की जाए।
(ख) जब वह अपने पड़ोसी को अपने सुरक्षाकर्मियों से पिटवाने की धमकी देता है;
(ग) जब वह थाने में फ़ोन करके पुलिस अधिकारियों पर दबाव डालता है कि उसके किसी दोषी रिश्तेदार के खिलाफ़ एफ.आई.आर. दर्ज न की जाए।

प्रश्न 3.
उपरोक्त चित्रकथा-पट्ट में कौन लोग अल्पसंख्या में हैं? बहुसंख्यक गुट द्वारा लिए गए फैसलों से यह अल्पसंख्यक गुट किस तरह दबाया जा रहा है? [एन.सी.ई.आर.टी. पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-8]
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 (Hindi Medium) 2

  1. लड़कियाँ अल्पसंख्या में है।
  2. लड़के क्रिकेट खेलना चाहते हैं, जबकि लड़कियाँ बास्केट बॉल खेलना चाहती हैं। शिक्षक इस विवाद को हल करने के लिए दोनों पक्षों को हाथ उठाकर अपनी राय बताने के लिए कहते हैं। लड़कों की संख्या अधिक होने के कारण फैसला उनके पक्ष में जाता है। इस प्रकार बहुसंख्यक गुट द्वारा लिए गए। फैसले से अल्पसंख्यक गुट को दबाया जा रहा है।

प्रश्न 4.
शबनम इस बात पर क्यों खुश हो रही है कि उसने टी.वी. नहीं देखा? ऐसी स्थिति में आप क्या करते? [एन.सी.ई.आर.टी. पाठ्यपुस्तक पेज-9]
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 (Hindi Medium) 3

  1. शबनम ने टी.वी. न देखकर परीक्षा के लिए दो अध्याय तैयार कर लिए। इन अध्यायों में से बहुत से प्रश्न आए और शबनम ने उन प्रश्नों का उत्तर ठीक लिखा।
  2. मैं भी वही करता/करती जो शबनम ने किया।


( पाठ्यपुस्तक से)

प्रश्न 1.
किसी लोकतांत्रिक देश को संविधान की जरूरत क्यों पड़ती है?
संविधान की जरूरत

  1. यह उन आदर्शों को सूत्रबद्ध करता है जिसके आधार पर नागरिक अपने देश को अपनी इच्छा और सपनों के अनुसार रच सकते हैं।
  2. यह ऐसे नियम निश्चित करता है जिसके द्वारा शासकों के हाथों सत्ता के दुरुपयोग को रोका जा सके।
  3. संविधान यह भी सुनिश्चित करता है कि कोई ताकतवर समूह किसी दूसरे कम ताकतवर समूह या लोगों के खिलाफ अपनी ताकत का प्रयोग न कर सके।

प्रश्न 2.
नीचे दिए गए दो दस्तावेजों के हिस्सों को देखिए। पहला कॉलम 1990 का नेपाल के संविधान का है। दूसरा कॉलम नेपाल के ताजा अंतरिम संविधान में से लिया गया है।

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 (Hindi Medium) 4
नेपाल के इन दोनों संविधानों में कार्यकारी शक्ति के उपयोग में क्या फर्क दिखाई देता है? इस बात को ध्यान में रखते हुए क्या आपको लगता है कि नेपाल को एक नए संविधान की जरूरत है? क्यों?
नेपाल को नए संविधान की आवश्यकता

  1. 1990 के संविधान में कार्यकारी शक्तियाँ राजा के हाथ में केंद्रित हैं, जबकि 2007 के अंतरिम संविधान में सत्ता की कार्यकारी शक्तियाँ मंत्रिपरिषद् के हाथ में रहेगी।
  2. हाँ, नेपाल को नए संविधान की जरूरत है, क्योंकि 1990 के संविधान में वे आदर्श निहित नहीं है। जो नेपाल की जनता चाहती है।

प्रश्न 3.
अगर निर्वाचित प्रतिनिधियों की शक्ति पर कोई अंकुश न होता तो क्या होता?
अगर शक्ति पर कोई अंकुश नहीं हो तो

  1. निर्वाचित प्रतिनिधि शक्तियों का दुरुपयोग करते तथा अपनी मनमानी करते।
  2. वे किसी को भी डराने-धमकाने और दबाने की कोशिश करते और अल्पसंख्यकों की उपेक्षा करते।
  3. वे अपने निर्णय जनता पर जबरदस्ती थोपते जिस कारण से नागरिक अपने अधिकारों व स्वतंत्रताओं का उपयोग नहीं कर पाते।

प्रश्न 4.
निम्नलिखित स्थितियों में अल्पसंख्यक कौन हैं? इन स्थितियों में अल्पसंख्यकों के विचारों का सम्मान करना क्यों महत्त्वपूर्ण है? इसका एक-एक कारण बताइए।
(क) एक स्कूल में 30 शिक्षक हैं और उनमें से 20 पुरुष हैं।
(ख ) एक शहर में 5 प्रतिशत लोग बौद्ध धर्म को मानते हैं।
(ग) एक कारखाने के भोजनालय में 80 प्रतिशत कर्मचारी शाकाहारी हैं।
(घ) 50 विद्यार्थियों की कक्षा में 40 विद्यार्थी संपन्न परिवारों से हैं।

  1. महिलाएँ अल्पसंख्यक हैं। महिलाओं के विचारों का सम्मान करना महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं, क्योंकि वे भी पुरुषों के बराबर योग्यता रखती हैं एवं स्कूल में पुरुषों के बराबर ही भूमिका निभाती हैं।
  2. बौद्ध अल्पसंख्यक हैं। उनके विचारों का सम्मान करना महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं, क्योंकि भारत में धर्मनिरपेक्षता का पालन किया गया है। इसलिए प्रत्येक समुदाय को अपनी संस्कृति की रक्षा और विकास करने का अधिकार है।
  3. मांसाहारी अल्पसंख्यक हैं। उनके विचारों का सम्मान करना महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं, क्योंकि प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को अपनी पसंद चुनने का अधिकार है।
  4. गरीब परिवार के विद्यार्थी अल्पसंख्यक हैं। उनके विचारों का सम्मान करना महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं, क्योंकि सभी विद्यार्थियों को समान अवसर दिए जाने चाहिए। ताकि प्रतिभा का विकास हो सके।

प्रश्न 5.
नीचे दिए गए बाएँ कॉलम में भारतीय संविधान के मुख्य आयामों की सूची दी गई है। दूसरे कॉलम में प्रत्येक आयाम के सामने दो वाक्यों में लिखिए कि आपकी राय में यह आयाम क्यों महत्त्वपूर्ण है-

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 (Hindi Medium) 5

  1. संघवाद में तीन स्तर की सरकार होती है तथा तीनों स्तर की सरकारों के अधिकार क्षेत्र अलग-अलग होते हैं।
  2. सरकार के तीनों अंगों विधायिका, कार्यपालिका तथा न्यायपालिका के बीच शक्तियों का बँटवारा इस प्रकार किया गया है कि कोई अंग अपनी शक्ति का दुरुपयोग न कर सके।
  3. मौलिक अधिकार देश के सभी नागरिकों को राज्य की सत्ता के मनमाने और निरंकुश इस्तेमाल से बचाने के लिए दिए गए हैं।
  4. देश के सभी वयस्क नागरिकों को अपने प्रतिनिधि चुनने का अधिकार दिया गया है।

प्रश्न 6.
इन नक्शे में निम्नलिखित देशों पर रंग भरें-
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 (Hindi Medium) 6
(क) भारत को लाल रंग से भरें
(ख) नेपाल को हरे रंग से भरें
(ग) बांग्लादेश को पीले रंग से भरें
छात्र स्वयं करें।