Choose the correct option:
‘Bigha’ and ‘Guintha’ are
(a) the type of village house
(b) the type of hybrid seeds
(c) the measuring units of grain
(d) the measuring units of land area in village
Answer: (d) the measuring units of land area in village
Finance raised to operate a business is called
Answer: (d) capital
Minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is
Answer: (c) ₹115
The Green Revolution introduced the farmers to
(a) cultivation of wheat and rice
(b) cultivation of green vegetables
(c) cultivation of sugar cane
(d) cultivation of forests
Answer: (a) cultivation of wheat and rice
The small farmers constitute about _________ per cent of total farmers in India.
Answer: (d) 80
The new ways of farming need
(a) less land
(b) more capital
(d) all of the above
Answer: (d) all of the above
The most abundant factor of production is
(d) all of the above
Answer: (a) labour
Multiple Cropping refers to :
(a) Cultivation of wheat and rice
(b) cultivation of two crops in alternate rows
(c) cultivating more than one crop on the same field each year
(d) cultivating crops and rearing animals on the same farm
Answer: (c) cultivating more than one crop on the same field each year
Working capital stands for :
(a) Tools, machines and buildings
(b) raw materials and money in hand
(c) total share capital
(d) fixed deposits in financial institutions
Answer: (b) raw materials and money in hand
Which one of the following is not an effect of the modern farming?
(a) Soil degradation
(c) Decrease in groundwater
(d) Water pollution
Answer: (d) Water pollution
How many families lives in Village Palampur?
Answer: (d) 450
Where do most of the small farmers borrow money to arrange for the capital in Palampur?
(b) Co-operative Societies
(c) Village money lenders
(d) Friends and relatives
Answer: (c) Village money lenders
‘Operation Flood’ is related to :
(a) control flood
(b) produce fish
(c) milk production
(d) grain production
Answer: (c) milk production
Consumption of chemical fertilisers is highest in which state of India?
(d) Himachal Pardesh
Answer: (a) Punjab
Scope of farming activity is limited in Palampur due to
(a) Fixed amount of land
(b) lack of irrigation
(c) lack of labour
(d) none of the above
Answer: (a) Fixed amount of land
Who is a person who puts together land, labour and capital?
Answer: (b) Entrepreneur
High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds are developed in
(a) Research institutes
(c) Krishak Bharati Cooperatives
(d) None of the above
Answer: (a) Research institutes
Which Kharif crop is used for cattle feed?
(c) Jowar and bajra
Answer: (c) Jowar and bajra
Which of the following is a modern farming method?
(a) Multiple cropping
(b) Use of HYV seeds
(c) Use of chemical fertilisers
(d) Both (b) and (c)
Answer: (d) Both (b) and (c)
Which area in India has a low level of irrigation?
(a) Deccan plateau
(b) Coastal regions
(c) Riverine plains
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Answer: (a) Deccan plateau
Multiple cropping means growing
(a) only two crops
(b) only three crops
(c) upto four crops
(d) more than one crop
Answer: (d) more than one crop
HYV seeds stands for
(a) Heavy yielding variety seeds
(b) High yielding variety seeds
(c) Half yielding variety seeds
Answer: (b) High yielding variety seeds
The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is
(a) Rs. 50
(b) Rs. 60
(c) Rs. 70
(d) Rs. 80
Answer: (b) Rs. 60
Which of the following is fixed capital?
(a) Tools and machines
(b) Fertilisers and pesticides
Answer: (a) Tools and machines
Which of the following is grown in the rainy season?
(a) Jowar and bajra
Answer: (a) Jowar and bajra
During your field visit talk to some farmers of your region. Find out:
- What kind of farming methods—modem or traditional or mixed—do the farmers use? Write a note.
- What are the sources of irrigation?
- How much of the cultivated land is irrigated? (very little/nearly half/majority/all)
- From where do farmers obtain the inputs that they require?
- Most of the farmers in my region use modem farming methods. However, some are still carrying on traditional methods. These farmers are too poor to follow modem farming methods which need more cash.
- Wells and tubewells.
- Majority of the cultivated land is irrigated.
- Farmers obtain the required inputs from the local markets. The money that they need to buy the inputs either comes from their own savings or they take a loan from the bank.
Fill in the Blanks
Among the three factors of production, we found that labour is the most abundant factor of production. There are many people who are willing to work as farm labourers in the villages, whereas the opportunities of work are limited. They belong to either landless families or
1. ______ They are paid low wages, and lead a difficult life In contrast to labour
2. ______ is a scarce factor of production. Cultivated land area is
3. ______ Moreover, even the existing land is distributed.
4. ______ among the people engaged in farming there are a large number of small farmers who cultivate small plots of land and live in conditions not much better than the landless farm labourer. To make the maximum use of the existing land, farmers use
5. ______ and
6. ______ Both these have led to increase in production of crops. Modem farming methods require a great deal of
7. ______ Small farmers usually need to borrow money to arrange for the capital, and are put to great distress to repay the loan. Therefore, capital too is a scarce factor of production, particularly for the small farmers. Though both land and capital are scarce, there is a basic difference between the two factors of production.
8. ______ is a natural resource, whereas.
9. ______ is man-made. It is possible to increase capital, whereas land is fixed. Therefore, it is very important that we take good care of land and other natural resources used in farming.
1. Families cultivating small plots of land
5. HYV seeds
6. chemical fertilisers