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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 5 Indigo

Class 12 English NCERT Solutions Flamingo Chapter 5 Indigo Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English

Indigo Textual Questions and Answers

Think-as-you-read Questions

Question 1.
Strike out what is not true in the following.
(a) Rajkumar Shukla was
(i) a sharecropper
(ii) a politician
(iii) delegate
(iv) a landlord
(b) Rajkumar Shukla was
(i) poor
(ii) physically strong
(iii) illiterate
Answer:
(a) (i) a sharecropper
(b) (iii) illiterate

Question 2.
Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being resolute?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was described as being resolute because he was determined to take Gandhiji to Champaran. His purpose was to champion the cause of the poor sharecroppers in Champaran. Shukla also accompanied him everywhere and followed him to the ashram.

Question 3.
Why do you think the servants thought Gandhi to be another peasant?
Answer:
When Shukla led Gandhi to the house of Rajendra Prasad, he was out of town. But, the servants knew Shukla as a poor farmer who pestered their master to help the sharecroppers. This is why, seeing Gandhi with them, they thought Gandhi to be another peasant.

Question 4.
List the places that Gandhi visited between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran.
Answer:
Gandhi visited Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, and Patna between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran.

Question 5.
What did the peasants pay the British landloards as rent? What did the British now want instead and why? What would be the impact of synthetic indigo on the prices of natural indigo?
Answer:
Peasants were compelled to plant 15 per cent of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire harvest as rent. With the advent of synthetic indigo, they wanted agreements from the tenants to pay them compensation for being released from 15 per cent agreement. As the synthetic indigo was much cheaper so the rates of natural indigo would also go down.

Question 6.
Why did Gandhi agree to a settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers?
Answer:
Gandhiji believed that the amount of refund was less important than the fact that the landlords had been forced to return part of money. With this refund they were leaving some of their prestige. So he agreed to a settlement of 25% refund.

Question 7.
How did the episode change the plight of the peasants?
Answer:
The Champaran episode filled the peasants with courage and self-confidence. They realised their potential and strength.

Indigo Understanding the Text

Question 1.
Why do you think Gandhiji considered the Champaran episode to be a turning point in his life? [Delhi 2019. All India 2012. 2014]
Answer:
The Champaran episode was a turning point in Gandhiji’s life because it brought him his first victory of civil disobedience. Gandhiji went to Champaran to help the poor peasants..He got an opportunity to test the basic principle of his movement in India. It proved as a testimony to the success of his non-violent way to get freedom for India.

The peasants of Champaran suffered exploitation, injustice and atrocities at the hands of British landlords. First, they compelled them to grow indigo on 15% of the land and give it to them as rent but later with the invention of synthatic indigo in Germany they obtained agreement from them to pay them compensation. Peasants were badly exploited. Gandhi, first of all, united them and then took out the fear out of their hearts and made them fearless to fight for their right. His victory, at Champaran gave Gandhi strength and courage to fight for the freedom of the nation. The Champaran episode was an example of self-reliance in the fight against the British.

Question 2.
How was Gandhi able to influence the lawyers? Give instances.
Answer:
Gandhi influenced the lawyers through his earnestness and conviction. First, he chided them for charging a heavy fee from peasants to fight their cases. Second, when lawyers thought of returning back to their places in case Gandhi got arrested, Gandhi made them realise that it would be very sad and impudent on their part to not to do anything for their own people when a stranger was ready to . go jail for them. Lawyers realised their moral duty and decided to follow Gandhiji in prison in case he got arrested. Gandhi evoked a sense of belonging and duty in the lawyers for the people of their area. He did this by giving them an example of his own selfless service for them.

Question 3.
What was the attitude of the average Indian in smaller localities towards advocates of ‘home’ rule?
Answer:
Advocates of ‘home rule’ were considered the enemies of the British government. Anyone who snowed sympathy towards them was treated badly by the British. In smaller localities, the average Indian was afraid to show sympathy to the advocates of ‘home’ rule due to the fear of dire consequences. But there was a surprising drastic change that Gandhiji experienced in Muzzafarpur. Here he was welcomed at the station by J.B. Kriplani, who was a British employee, along with a large group of students. Not only this, his host was a government schoolteacher.

Indigo – Solved Question Bank

Reference-to-Context Questions
Read the extracts given below.

Question 1.
When I first visited Gandhi in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram, in central India, he said, “I will tell you how it happened that I decided to urge the departure of the British. It was in 1917. ”
Answer the following.
(a) The extract is a conversation between two freedom fighters. (True/False)
(b) Gandhi was being interviewed by the author. (True/False)
(e) Gandhi wanted to share his __________ with the narrator.
(d) Find a word from the extract that means ‘the act of leaving a place’.
Answer:
(a) False
(b) True
(c) Strategy
(d) departure

Question 2.
“I am Rajkumar Shukla. I am from Champaran and I want you to come to my district!” Gandhi had never heard of the place.
Answer the following.
(a) The speaker here is the Congress president Rajendra Prasad. (True/False)
(b) Gandhi had not heard of Champaran because no one had ever approached him with any problem. (True/False)
(c) Gandhi wanted to be a __________ .
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘an administrative area’?
Answer:
(a) False
(b) True
(c) a negotiator
(d) district

Question 3.
Rajendra Prasad was out of town, but the servants knew Shukla as a poor yeoman who pestered their master to help the indigo sharecroppers. So they let him stay on the grounds with his companion, Gandhi, whom they took to be another peasant.
Answer the following.
(a) Rajendra Prasad was out of town because he never wanted to entertain anyone in the house. (True/False)
(b) Gandhi was allowed to stay there because Shukla was a familiar face in the house. (True/False)
(c) Gandhi experienced __________ there.
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘harass’ or ‘torment’?
Answer:
(a) False
(b) True
(c) untouchability
(d) Pester

Question 4.
Under an ancient arrangement, the Champaran peasants were sharecroppers. Rajkumar Shukla was one of them. He was illiterate but resolute. He had come to the Congress session to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar, and somebody had probably said, “Speak to Gandhi. ”
Answer the following.
(a) Shukla was the one who took initiative to contact Gandhi. (True/False)
(b) Leaders at the Congress session were reluctant to help Shukla. (True/False)
(c) Under the ancient arrangement, the sharecroppers were __________ .
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘indefatigable’.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) exploited
(d) resolute

Question 5.
The sharecropping arrangement was irksome to the peasants, and many signed willingly. Those who resisted, engaged lawyers; the landlords hired thugs.
Answer the following.
(a) Peasants happily accepted the sharecropping arrangement as they were the beneficiaries. (True/False)
(b) The landlords were hesitant to accept the arrangement. (True/False)
(c) The peasants feel __________ .
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘refrain from’?
Answer:
(a) False
(b) True
(c) betrayed/cheated
(d) resist

Question 6.
All night Gandhi remained awake. He telegraphed Rajendra Prasad to come from Bihar with influential friends. He sent instructions to the ashram. He wired a full report to the Viceroy. Morning found the town of Motihari black with peasants.
Answer the following.
(a) Gandhiji sent a full report to the Viceroy. (True/False)
(b) The large demonstration by the peasants was unprecedented. (True/False)
(c) Gandhi planned his next move __________ .
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘authoritative’.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) True
(c) meticulously
(d) influential

Question 7.
The government was baffled. The prosecutor requested the judge to postpone the trial. Apparently, the authorities wished to consult their superiors. Gandhi protested against the delay.
Answer the following.
(a) The prosecutor was not confident of facing the court. (True/False)
(b) Gandhi was apologetic about the delay in judgment due to him. (True/False)
(c) The authorities wished to consult the __________ .
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘obviously’.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) superiors
(d) Apparently

Question 8.
Rajendra Prasad, Brij Kishor Babu, Maulana Mazharul Huq and several other prominent lawyers had arrived from Bihar. They conferred with Gandhi. What would they do if he was sentenced to prison, Gandhi asked. Why, the senior lawyer replied, they had come to advise and help him; if he went to jail there would be nobody to advise and they would go home.
Answer the following.
(a) Many prominent lawyers had come to Motihari to discuss the possible eventualities if Gandhi was arrested. (True/False)
(b) Gandhi did not expect any assurance from the lawyers. (True/False)
(c) The lawyers’ response was __________ .
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘agree’.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) Irresponsible
(d) Confer

Question 9.
They accordingly went back to Gandhi and told him they were ready to follow him into jail, “the battle of Champaran is won ”, he exclaimed. Then he took a piece of paper and divided the group into pairs and put down the order in which each pair was to court arrest.
Answer the following.
(a) Gandhi felt jubilant after the lawyers’ assurance. (True/False)
(b) Their next plan of action faced hurdles. (True/False)
(c) __________ inspired Gandhi to say, “The battle of Champaran is won”.
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘assign/formulate’?
Answer:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) mass co-operation
(d) put down

Question 10.
First he visited the secretary of the British landlord’s association. The secretary told him that they could give no information to an outsider. Gandhi answered that he was no outsider.
Answer the following.
(a) Gandhi wanted to meet the official to get the facts about the synthetic indigo. (True/False)
(b) Though he was not given any information, he was allowed to meet the commissioner. (True/False)
(c) What does Gandhi’s refusal to leave the place and claim his rights says about his character trait?
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as an organized group of people for a joint purpose?
Answer:
(a) True
(b) True
(c) Righteousness
(d) association

Question 11.
Gandhi explained that the amount of the refund was less important than the fact that the landlords had been obliged to surrender part of the money and, with it, part of their prestige. Therefore, as far as the peasants were concerned, the planters had behaved as lords above the law.
Answer the following.
(a) The above extract refers to the misuse of the refund of the money to the farmers. (True/False)
(b) There was no difference of opinion between Gandhi and the peasants regarding the proposed refund amount. (True/False)
(c) The word __________ can be used to describe Gandhi’s ability to solve the problem.
(d) Find a word from the extract which means the same as ‘compel’.
Answer:
(a) True
(b) False
(c) efficacy
(d) Obliged

Question 12.
During his long stay in Champaran, Gandhi kept a long distance watch on the ashram. He sent regular instructions by mail and asked for financial accounts. Once he wrote to the residents that it was time to fill in the old latrine trenches and dig new ones otherwise the old ones would begin to smell bad.
Answer the following.
(a) The ashram referred to in the extract was his temporary accommodation in Champaran village. (True/False)
(b) He sent instructions by mail and kept a check on the ashram’s financial accounts because he did not trust anyone. (True/False)
(c) How did Gandhiji keep a watch on the ashram?
(d) Find a word from extract that means ‘a record of money spent and received’.
Answer:
(a) False
(b) False
(c) long distance
(d) accounts (financial-account)

Indigo Short Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being resolute? [Foreign 2011, All India 2015]
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was a poor, illiterate peasant from Champaran. When he came to know that Gandhi was in Lucknow, he decided to meet him and ask him to help the poor sharecroppers of Champaran. He requested Gandhi to come to Champaran but Gandhi was not free. He had appointments in Cawnpore and in other parts of India. Shukla followed him everywhere and even to his Ashram at Ahmedabad and urged him to fix a date. Finally Gandhi had to agree to visit Champaran. This clearly shows that Shukla was resolute.

Question 2.
How did Gandhiji begin his mission in Champaran? [Foreign 2012]
Answer:
After reaching Champaran, first of all, Gandhiji collected all the facts and information. He visited the secretary of the British Landlords Association, but could not get any information. He also called on the British Official Commissioner of Tirhut division, but could not get any positive response. So, finally, he proceeded to Motihari, the capital of Champaran.

Question 3.
How did Gandhiji react to the Commissioner’s advice and where did he go? [Foreign 2012. 2013]
Answer:
When Gandhiji was served an official notice with an advice from the Commissioner to leave Champaran immediately, he refused to obey it. He was then served a summons to appear in the court the following day. Then Gandhi sent a telegram to Rajendra Prasad to come along with his influential friends.

Question 4.
How were Shukla and Gandhiji received in Rajendra Prasad’s house? [Delhi 2012, All India 2015]
Answer:
When Shukla and Gandhiji reached Rajendra Prasad’s house, the latter was out of town. The servants knew Shukla as a poor peasant who always used to pester their master. They thought Gandhiji to be a peasant. They both were treated as peasants and were made to sit on the floor and were not allowed to draw water from the well.

Question 5.
How did the Champaran peasants react when they heard that a Mahatma had come to help them? [All India 2014 (C)]
Answer:
When Gandhiji reached Muzzafarpur, on his way to Champaran, peasants came to know about his arrival. They all gathered in large numbers to show their support to their saviour. Moreover, when Gandhiji was to appear in the court, after he was served a summons, peasants in large numbers filled the streets of Motihari. The British officials became helpless to handle them.

Question 6.
What made the Lieutenant Governor drop the case against Gandhiji? [All India 2014]
Answer:
The Lieutenant Governor had to drop the case against Gandhiji after realising the support of the masses that he had. When Gandhiji arrived in the court in response to the summous he was served, the town of Motihari was filled with large crowds. The British officials felt helpless and had to take Gandhiji’s help to control the mob. Fearing the consequences, the case was postponed and later dropped.

Question 7.
Why did Gandhiji oppose when his friend Andrews offered to stay in Champaran and help the peasants? [Foreign 2014]
OR
Why was Gandhiji opposed to C.F. Andrews helping him in Champaran? [Delhi 2016]
Answer:
Gandhiji opposed when his friend Andrews offered to stay in Champaran to help the peasants because he wanted the people of Champaran to be self-reliant. He wanted them not to depend on others to win their battle but build up their self-confidence. He did not want the support of an Englishman as a prop for his cause.

Question 8.
How is Gandhi critical of lawyers? [Foreign 2015]
Answer:
Gandhiji came to know about the plight of poor peasants of Champaran. He was told that Muzzafarpur lawyers frequently represented peasent groups in court. Gandhiji chided them for collecting big fee from the sharecroppers. After his chiding the lawyers realised that it was shameful for them not to help peasants as Gandhi being a stranger was ready even to go to jail for the peasants.

Question 9.
Why did Gandhi tell the court that he was involved in a ‘conflict of duties’? [Foreign 2015]
Answer:
Gandhiji told the court that he was involved in a ‘conflict of duties’. On the one hand, he did not want to be a lawbreaker but, on the other hand, couldn’t ignore his humanitarian and national service as demanded by his conscience. He told the court that finally he had decided to listen to the voice of his conscience and help the poor peasants of Champaran.

Question 10.
Why did Gandhi feel that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless? [Delhi 2014]
Answer:
Gandhi felt that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless. He believed that where the peasants were so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts were useless. The real relief for them would be to be free from fear.

Question 11.
What were the terms of the indigo contract between the British landlords and the Indian fermers? [All India 2015]
Answer:
The arable areas of Champaran were divided into large estates owned by British landlords. The peasants worked on this land as tenants. The peasants were forced to grow indigo on 15% of their land and give the entire crop of indigo as rent. This was the iqdigo contract between the British landlords and the Indian peasants.

Question 12.
Though the sharecroppers of Champaran received only one-fourth of the compensation, how can the Champaran struggle still be termed a huge success and victory? [Delhi 2018]
Answer:
Even though the sharecroppers of Champaran received only one-fourth of the compensation, yet it was a huge success because it made the peasants fearless. Until then, they never had the courage to resist the English rulers, but now they came out on the road in large crowds. This was a declaration of the end of terror. It can be termed success because it liberated the peasants from slavery and fear.

Question 13.
“The battle of Champaran is won.” When and why did Gandhiji utter these words?
Answer:
The eminent lawyers from the nearby areas came to help Gandhiji. They decided to go back in case Gandhiji was arrested. At this Gandhiji made them to realise their duty towards the peasants. They realised that it would be shameful for them to leave these peasants at a time when a stranger was ready even to go to jail for them. So they all approached Gandhiji and said that they would accompany him to jail. At this point, Gandhiji said, “The battle of Champaran is won.”

Question 14.
Why did Gandhiji go to Muzzafarpur before going to Champaran? What sort of reception did he get there and why was it unusal?
Answer:
In order to get complete information about the condition of peasants at Champaran, Gandhiji decided to go to Muzzafarpur. He was received by Prof. J.B. Kriplani, who was a professor at Arts College, along with a large body of students. He was hosted by Prof. Malkani, a Government schoolteacher. It was an unusal thing because in those days people were afraid to show sympathy for the advocates of home rule.

Question 15.
What was the condition of sharecroppers at the time that Gandhiji arrived at Champaran?
Answer:
Sharecroppers were in a miserable condition when Gandhi arrived at Champaran. They were supposed to grow indigo on 15% of their land and give it as rent to the landlords. But with the invention of the synthetic indigo, landlords had obtained agreements from the sharecroppers to pay them compensation for being released from 15% agreement and cheated them.

Question 16.
Why did Gandhi protest against the delay in the trial?
Answer:
Gandhi protested against the delay in the trial as the prosecutor had asked for postponment of the trial. Gandhi read a statement pleading guilty and asked for the due penalty. But the magistrate announced that he would pronounce sentence after a recess and asked Gandhi to furnish a bail but Gandhi refused. In fact, Gandhi wanted the victory of civil disobedience which finally happened when the case was dropped.

Question 17.
What made the British realise that Indians could challenge their might?
Answer:
When Gandhi received a summons to appear in the court, within a night multitudes of peasants gathered in Motihari. The presence of thousands of peasants outside the courthouse made the British realise that Indians could challenge their might. As they were not able to control them they had to take the help of Gandhiji to control the situation.

Question 18.
Why was Gandhiji’s trial delayed?
Answer:
The entire town of Motihari was flooded with thousands of peasants protesting Gandhi’s arrest. The courthouse was surrounded by the peasants demonstrating and the British were unable to control them. The government got baffled. The prosecutor requested the judge to postpone the trial and the authorities had to consult their superiors.

Question 19.
How did Gandhi manage the working of the ashram at Ahmedabad while he was at Champaran?
Answer:
Gandhiji kept a long distance watch on his ashram at Ahmedabad. He sent regular instructions by wire and asked for financial accounts. He was well informed about minute details of the ashram.

Question 20.
What did Gandhiji do for social and cultural upliftment of the people of Champaran?
Answer:
Gandhiji was not content with the large political or economic solution. He wanted to do something for the social and cultural backwardness of Champaran. He appealed to teachers and his disciples Mahadev Desai and Narhari Parikh came with their wives, primary schools were opened in six villages. His son and wife Kasturba also joined him. He arranged for a volunteer doctor and his wife took care of personal hygiene and cleanliness.

Indigo Long Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why did Rajkumar Shukla invite Gandhiji to Champaran? How did Gandhiji solve the problem of the indigo farmers? [All India 2012]
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was a poor, illiterate peasant who requested Gandhiji to visit Champaran and told him about the plight of the sharecroppers. Gandhiji, first of all, instilled fearlessness and confidence in the farmers. He was served a summons to appear in the court as he had refused to obey the civil order. The entire town of Motihari was crowded with the peasants who had come to support him.

This demonstration around the courthouse was the showcase of the beginning of fearlessness in the farmers. Finally, the case was dropped. It marked the first triumph of civil disobedience. Gandhiji instilled courage in the farmers to speak for their rights. Due to continuous efforts of Gandhiji, a committee was formed and 25% money was refunded to the farmers. In this way, Gandhiji solved the problem of the indigo farmers by making it a people’s struggle, involving everyone from sharecroppers to the lawyers.

Question 2.
Give an account of Gandhiji’s efforts to secure justice for the poor indigo sharecroppers of Champaran. [All India 2012]
Answer:
In 1916, during the annual meet of the Indian National Congress at Lucknow, Gandhiji met a poor farmer from Champaran, who told him about the plight of the sharecroppers at Champaran and requested him to visit his state. After persistent efforts of Rajkumar Shukla, a peasant from Champaran, Gandhiji finally went to Champaran after many months. Gandhiji came to know that the arable land in Champaran was divided into large estates owned by British landlords. Earlier these landloards had compelled the peasants to grow indigo on 15% of their land and give it as rent but later with the invention of synthetic indigo in Germany, the landlords got the agreement signed by these farmers for compensation.

Gandhiji tried to collect all facts but was asked to go back. When he refused, he was summoned to appear before the court. But due to the massive support of farmers, the case was dropped. It brought the first triumph of civil disobedience. A committee was formed after Gandhiji met the Lieutenant Governor four times. Gandhiji accepted 25% refund of the money to break the deadlock. This instilled confidence in farmers and within a few years, the landlords relinquished their claims over the estates.

Question 3.
Self-reliance, Indian Independence and help to sharecroppers were all bound together. Elucidate with reference to the lesson ‘Indigo’. [HOTS]
Answer:
When Gandhiji reached Champaran. he came to know that the arable areas of Champaran were divided into large estates owned by British landlords. As per the long-term contract, these sharecroppers were supposed to grow indigo on 15% of the land and give if as rent. But due to the advent of synthetic indigo in Germany, landlords got the compensation agreement signed by these peasants, who later on felt cheated.

Gandhiji’s first triumph in the form of civil disobedience at Motihari laid the foundations of the Indian Independence Movement. No doubt this brought a good result for sharecroppers in the form of a committee through which 25% money was given by the landlords. Gandhiji taught the lesson of unity and courage to the sharecroppers. His refusal to keep his friend Andrews at Champaran to help him emphasized the importance of self-reliance for him. He trained the peasants to be self- reliant and not to be dependent on others.

Thus, self-reliance, Indian Independence and help to sharecroppers were all tied together.

Question 4.
Gandhi was impressed by the sharecropper’s tenacity and this led to a series of events which had a far-reaching impact on Indian freedom struggle. Discuss with reference to the excerpt by Louis Fischer’s ‘Indigo’. [HOTS]
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was resolute; his persistent efforts brought Gandhiji to Champaran to help the poor farmers. On his arrival at Motihari, Gandhiji was summoned to appear before the court as he had refused to obey the civil order to leave the place immediately. The case was dropped as the British got scared of the multitudes of farmers who demonstrated in support of Gandhiji outside the courthouse. This brought the first triumph of civil disobedience.

In fact, this triumph launched the civil disobedience movement in the Indian freedom struggle. Moreover, the courage that the farmers had shown proved the fact that Indians were coming out of their fears and were ready to fight for their rights. Thus, all the events at Champaran strengthened the Indian freedom movement.

Question 5.
Rajkumar Shukla, a poor, unassuming peasant, became a catalyst for change by taking Gandhi to Champaran, an act which later culminated into the first successful instance of civil disobedience in India. What helped Shukla and Gandhi respectively to initiate one of the most powerful movements in the history of our national struggle?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was a poor, illiterate peasant but he was resolute. He wanted Gandhiji to visit Champaran and for that he made relentless efforts. He was determined to meet Gandhi and persuaded him to help the sharecroppers. It was only due to Rajkumar Shukla’s persistent efforts and requests that Gandhiji consented to visit Champaran. After reaching Champaran, Gandhiji initiated the civil disobedience movement by refusing to obey the civil orders to quit the place. It was Gandhiji’s courage and honesty that brought him the victory when the case was dropped. Gandhiji was full of empathy for the poor peasants and was determined to help them. Thus, courage, determination, truthfulness, honesty and, above all, patriotism examplified by Gandhiji and determination and being resolute, the qualities in Rajkumar Shukla, initiated Civil Disobedience Movement in India.

Question 6.
Gandhiji taught a lesson of self-reliance to the sharecroppers of Champaran. His focus was more on making the peasants free from fear rather than on the refund and he was successful in this endeavour. In this present scenario, we are free but shackled by the chains of intolerance and bigotry.
As the head boy/head girl of your school, you decide to speak in the morning assembly to stress the need to live in peace, harmony, tolerance and respect for each other. Write the speech.
Answer:
Respected principal, teachers and dear students!
We are proud to be the citizens of world’s largest democracy. We belong to the country of Buddha, Nanak, Rama and Krishna. India is called a multicoloured mosaic as we have an amalgamation of different cultures, religions, castes and creeds in our country. With so much variety from Kashmir to Kanyakumari, we are united with the thread of love for our motherland.

But what we hear nowadays about increasing intolerance is shocking for all of us. We call ourselves a free nation. But are we really free? Are we free from the narrow considerations of caste, creed, religion and community? We have to understand the fact that beirtg a secular country, we have to respect each other. The increasing incidents of intolerance and bigotry are a testimony to the fact that the youth of today need to sit and think about the direction in which we are moving.

Finally, I would like to appeal to you to recall the past glory of our country and the present development and progress. Let’s break the shackles of ignorance and learn to, live in harmony and peace with each other.
Thank you.

Kishen

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