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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 3 Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues

Class 11 English Chapter 3 NCERT Solutions Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English

Question 1.
forensic reconstruction
It refers to rebuilding the facts about life and death by putting back together the evidence to examine a crime scientifically. The reconstruction of King Tut’s mummy was done to find solutions to the mysteries surrounding his death.

Question 2.
funerary treasures
It refers to the valuables and treasures which were buried along with the pharaoh in the pyramid.

Question 3.
scudded across
It refers to moving swiftly from one place to another. It is used in the chapter to describe the movement of the dark-bellied clouds. ‘

Question 4.
casket grey
It refers to ash coloured clouds that hid the stars.

Question 5.
It refers to rebirth or revival after death.

Question 6.
Outsmarted or outwitted. The thieves would have easily bypassed the guards with artfulness and ripped the mummy apart to remove the gold.

Question 7.
computed tomography
It refers to CT scan that provides the X-ray image of a body in cross section. It is used for diagnostic purposes.

Question 8.
eerie detail
It refers to detail relating to the supernatural.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Understanding The Text

Question 1.
Give reasons for the following
(i) King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated ‘ scrutiny because, right from the time of the
discovery of his tomb in 1922 by Howard Carter, the modern world has been curious to find out what
happened to King Tut. He died unexpectedly. No one knows how the boy king lived and died. His death has been obscured in mystery, with murder being the most extreme possibility.

(ii) Howard Carter’s investigation was resented.
Howard Carter’s investigation was resented because he destroyed the original state of the mummy. His men cut off the mummy’s head and severed every major joint of the body to raise King Tut from the coffin.
They then reassembled the remains on a layer of sand in a wooden box and put the body back. Moreover, Howard Carter did not use scientific methods while excavating King Tut’s mummy.
It resulted in great damage to the mummy.

(iii) Howard Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the King’s remains.
Howard Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the King’s remains because the ritual resins had hardened, cementing King Tut to the bottom of his solid gold coffin permanently.

(iv) King Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures.
King Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures because in that time the king was very wealthy and people thought and hoped that they could take their riches with them in their journey after death.

Hence, King Tut was buried with all the things that he used in his daily life and the things that he would need in the afterlife.

(v) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.
The boy changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun because he wanted the restoration of the old ways. His ancestor, Amenhotep IV, had shocked the country by attacking a major God ‘Amun’. It was a time of unrest. The boy tried to establish the old faith by renaming himself as Tutankhamun which means ‘living image of Amun’.

Question 2.
(i) List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as ‘Wacky’.
Ray Johnson described Akhenaten as ‘wacky’ because what he did was nothing less than crazy in those times. He promoted the worship of Aten, the sun disk, changed his own name and moved the religious capital from the old city of Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten, now known as Amama. He further shocked the country by attacking a major God ‘Amun’, by smashing his images and closing his temples.
His reign was a horrible time.

(ii) What were the results of the CT scan?
King Tut’s mummy was the first one that was being scanned. The CT machine scanned the mummy from head to toe and created 1700 digital X-ray images in cross-section. King Tut’s head was scanned in 0.62 mm slices to register its complicated structures to probe the secrets of his death. Though there were some hurdles in the scan, it went as expected.

The CT scan showed King Tut’s neck vertebrae as clearly as in an anatomy class. Other images revealed a hand, several views of the rib cage and a transection of the skull that showed there was nothing unnatural in his death.

(iii) List the advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis.
Advances in technology have improved forensic analysis significantly. Today, diagnostic imaging can be done by Computed Tomography or CT.

In CT, hundreds of X-rays in cross-section are put together like slices of bread to create a three-dimensional virtual picture of the body. The scanners can scan even an intricate structure by scanning it in thin slices.

(iv) Explain the statement, “King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned – in death, as in life…”
King Tut was the last ruler of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt for centuries. He came to the throne when he was not even a teenager. At a very young age he contributed tremendously in restoring the past glory and old ways. However, he met a very early death in mysterious circumstances when he was just 18 years old.

Since the discovery of his tomb in 1922, the modem world has speculated a lot about him. His mummy was the first one to undergo a CT scan! Hence, in life as in death, he has been the attention of all.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Talking About The Text

Discuss the following in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view.

Question 1.
Scientific intervention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.
For If you think history has any relevance in our life, we must get at the truth. There are so many mysteries which remain unsolved. For example, we know very little about the Indus Valley Civilisation. The seals remain undeciphered. This needs scientific investigation. Without scientific intervention, their meaning will remain unknown.

Against We need to know the past because history is relevant to our lives. But sometimes we take it too far. King Tut’s mummy has been repeatedly investigated, but in spite of spending much money, nothing new has been revealed about why King Tut died so young. We must utilise our resources to help the living rather than just investigating the dead.

Question 2.
Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.
For Today technology is so advanced that we can reconstruct the past. For example, we know how Pompeii was destroyed. So now we have reconstructed the whole city. We know precisely how the people lived.

Against It is incorrect that advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events. King Tut’s body has been CT-scanned. What can it tell us about how he died? If he was murdered, who murdered him and why? A CT scan might give some idea how he died, but it cannot give conclusive evidence.

Question 3.
Traditions, rituals and funerary practices must be respected.
For People who buried their dead with rituals and funerary practices did show reverence for their dead. They wanted them to lie in peace, undisturbed. We must respect their sentiments.

Against Traditions, customs and funerary practices of the past may encourage superstition. They may also hamper the development of society and affect unity. In fact, they could lead to violence and friction between people belonging to different cultures.

Question 4.
Knowledge about the past is useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.
For The past acts as a mirror to our mistakes and teaches us many lessons. In fact, the present is the outcome of the past. It helps us understand the progress of the events down the ages. It builds a good foundation for our present and future.

Against We must live in the present. The past is infinite and should be left as it is. The past should not affect our present life. It should not be searched again and again; it must be considered as a phase which has passed.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Thinking About Language

Read the following piece of information from the Encyclopaedia of Language by David Crystal.

Egyptian is now extinct:
its history dates from before the third millennium BC, preserved in many hieroglyphic inscriptions and papyrus manuscripts. Around the second century AD, it developed into a language known as Coptic. Coptic may still have been used as late as the early nineteenth century and is still used as a religious language by Monophysite Christians in Egypt.

Question 1.
What do you think are the reasons for the extinction of languages?
Some of the reasons for the extinction of languages are
(a) Migration of people to other lands.
(b) Limitation of vocabulary.
(c) Absence of written script along with prevalence of oral tradition.
(d) Globalisation, as it has led to the use of only dominant languages.
(e) Social status of a language.
(f) Introduction of a non-indigeneous language that takes over all social functions.
(g) Constant changes in the society.
(h) Parents do not pass on a language to their children.

Question 2.
Do you think it is important to preserve languages?
Yes, it is important to preserve languages as they are responsible for development of the culture of the community. It helps in preservation of one’s heritage and traditions. The loss of any language is a loss for all humanity. Our language defines our identity. One can differentiate even between the people speaking the same language by their dialect or the way they talk. A language represents a whole cultural history. ‘Linguistic diversity’ is a benchmark of cultural diversity. Language is a cultural resource and it should be handed down by parents to their children.

Question 3.
In what ways do you think we could help prevent the extinction of languages and d\a\ec£s?
We could help prevent the extinction of languages and dialects by
(a) Transferring the vocabulary and dialects of the language to the next generation.
(b) Documenting the language and preserving information about native literature and linguistics of the language.
(c) Encouraging younger generations to speak the language as they grow.
(d) New technologies such as ‘podcasts’ can be used to . preserve the spoken versions of languages.
(e) Teaching the languages in college and universities and encouraging students to specialise in the same.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Working With Words

Question 1.
Given below are some interesting combinations of words. Explain why they have been used together.
(i) ghostly dust devils
(ii) desert sky
(iii) stunning artefacts
(iv) funerary treasures
(v) scientific detachment
(vi) dark-bellied clouds
(vii) casket grey
(viii) eternal brilliance
(ix) ritual resins
(x) virtual body
1. ghostly dust devils It refers to the evil or frightful movements of dusty winds. It reflects the anger of the winds for disturbing the king from his resting place.

2. desert sky It refers to the lifeless and barren sky of the desert. The barren sky spread over the vast desert region portrays a sad picture.

3. stunning artefacts It refers to breathtakingly beautiful objects made by humans. Using the words together explains the external brilliance of the objects found in the tomb.

4. funerary treasures Jewels or precious objects relating to a funeral. It refers to the fact that the king was buried with numerous treasures and items made of pure gold.

5. scientific detachment It refers to the application of reasoning and science without attaching any emotion or feeling into the action taken. The archaeologist Carter did not have any reverence or feeling for King Tut. He was just a scientist without any emotional attachment to King Tut.

6. dark-bellied clouds It refers to the dark, bulging clouds containing rain.

7. casket grey It refers to the grey coloured clouds that hide the stars like placing them in a casket.

8. external brilliance It refers to the endless lustre/ radiance and brightness of the jewels and valuables of the king which is visible externally.

9. ritual resins It refers to resins used as a customary duty in the process of mummifying a body in Egypt at that time.

10. virtual body A figure of the body created through electronic images or CT scan. It resembles a real body and provides a very clear view.

Question 2.
Here are some commonly used medical terms. Find out their meanings.

CT scan MRI tomography
autopsy dialysis ECG
post mortem angiography biopsy

CT Scan A CT scan makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomography) images (virtual ‘slices’) of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a detailed image of the body’s soft tissue and bones.

Tomography A method of producing a three – dimensional image of the internal structures of a solid object (like the human body) by the observation and recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy hitting those structures.

Autopsy An examination of a body after death to determine the cause of death or the character and extent of changes produced by disease.

Dialysis The purification of blood by separating the waste products from it to replace the normal function of kidneys.

ECG An electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) is a test that checks for problems with the electrical activity of the heart. It shows the heart’s electrical activity as line tracings on paper.

Post mortem (also called post mortem examination) An examination of a dead body to determine the cause of death.

Angiography A procedure performed to view blood vessels after injecting them with a dye that outlines them on an X-ray. This technique can be used to look at arteries in many areas of the body, including the brain, neck (carotids), heart, chest, pulmonary circuit, kidneys, gastrointestinal area, and limbs.

Biopsy A medical procedure during which a small sample of tissue is removed from a part of the body. The sample of tissue is then examined under the microscope to look for abnormal cells.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Things To Do

Question 1.
The constellation Orion is associated with the legend of Osiris, the god of the afterlife. Find out the astronomical descriptions and legends associated with the following.
(i) Ursa Major (Saptarishi mandala)
(ii) Polaris (Dhruva tara)
(iii) Pegasus (Wingedhorse)
(iv) Sirius (Dogstar)
(v) Gemini (Mithuna)
1. Ursa Major (Saptarishi mandala) Ursa Major is a constellation visible throughout the year in the Northern Hemisphere. It consists of seven stars which form the well-known Big-Dipper. Its name means Great Bear in Latin, and is associated with the Legend of Callisto.

According to Sanskrit mythology, this group of seven sages (Saptarishi) also moves around the constant star Dhruva tara known as Polaris.

2. Polaris (Dhruva tara) This star remains constant and always points to the North.

The direction of Ursa Major keeps changing with the passage of the night, but Polaris remains unchanged. It is associated with the legend of Dhruva, the six year old boy who was blessed by Lord Vishnu with a permanent and constant abode in the universe.

3. Pegasus (Winged horse) This is associated with Greek mythology as the winged horse sprung from Medusa’s blood. It carries lightning bolts for Zeus. Pegasus’ constellation may be seen when the stars are clearly visible.

4. Sirius (Dog star) This is associated with the legend of Orion. It is called ‘Dog star’ as it represents Orion’s large hunting dog. The first glimpse of Sirius at dawn announced the rising of the Nile in ancient Egypt.

5. Gemini (Mithuna) A combination of two Nakshatras — Aardhara and Punarvasu and having contradictory qualities.

Question 2.
Some of the leaves and flowers mentions in the passage for adorning the dead are willow, olive, celery, lotus cornflower. Which of these are common in our country?
Willow, olive, lotus, and cornflower are common in our country.

Question 3.
Name some leaves and flowers that are used as adornments in our country.
Roses, lotus, mehendi, marigolds, champa and chameli flowers and the leaves of mango, peepal, banana, and tulsi are used as adornments in our country.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Short Questions and Answers (2 Marks)

Question 1.
How was the atmosphere when King Tut’s body was scanned?
As King Tut’s body was taken from his resting place in the ancient Egyptian cemetery known as the Valley of the Kings, an angry wind stirred up ghostly dust devils. Dark-bellied clouds had moved across the desert sky all day and covered the stars in grey colour. But when the CT scan was over, the wind had stopped and the winter air lay still. The clouds were gone and the Orion constellation of stars was clearly visible.

Question 2.
Why is 5th January 2005 a significant date in Tutankhamun’s saga?
5th January 2005 is a significant date in

Tutankhamun’s saga because on this day, the world’s most famous mummy gilded from head to toe was CT scanned in order to probe the remaining mysteries of this little understood young ruler who had died more than 3300 years ago.

Question 3.
Why did the tourists come from around the world? What did they do?
The tourists from around the world queued up all afternoon and descended into the narrowed rock-cut tomb. They had come to pay their homage to King Tut.

They watched the murals on the walls of the burial chamber. Some visitors read from guidebooks while others stood silently peering at King Tut’s gilded face.

Question 4.
What superstition had prevailed about Tutankhamun? Did Howard Carter believe this? Why?
The superstition of the pharaoh’s curse – death misfortune falling upon those who disturbed him – had prevailed about Tutankhamun. The Egyptians thus never tried to go near King Tut’s tomb and feared it be disasterous. It could invite the pharaoh’s curse.

However, Howard Carter was a Britisher and did not believe this because he thought it was just a superstition to keep thieves away from the tomb and ‘ from the enormous wealth buried with the little pharaoh.

Question 5.
Do you think Howard Carter was absolutely wrong in cutting King Tut’s body into pieces? Why?
Carter was absolutely wrong in cutting King Tut’s body into pieces. He damaged the mummy to a great extent and destroyed the natural state of the mummy. Moreover, he did not use scientific methods while excavating King Tut’s mummy, resulting in immense disfiguration of the body. This prevented other scientific investigators from trying to find out the reasons for King Tut’s death at an early age.

Question 6.
Who pointed out that the mummy was in a bad condition? Who was held responsible for it?
Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, bent over the mummy and watched it carefully. He discovered that the mummy was in a very bad condition because Howard Carter cut the body into many pieces, as it was stuck to the bottom of the coffin due to the ritual resins becoming hardened. So, Zahi Hawass held Howard Carter responsible for the bad condition of the mummy.

Question 7.
What was the nature of the wealth with which King Tut’s mummy was buried? What were the things of daily use which were buried with him?
The wealth with which King Tut was buried remains the richest royal collection ever found and this has become a part of the pharaoh’s legend. The wealth basically contains different stunning artefacts of gold. Tut was also buried with everyday things such as board games, bronze razor, linen undergarments and cases of food and wine.

Question 8.
What was the fate of the contents of King Tut’s mummy?
Even over 80 years after the discovery of King Tut’s tomb in 1922, surprisingly all its contents were complete. They remain the richest royal collection ever found till 2005. They have now become part of the pharaoh’s legend.

Question 9.
What is the significance of the gold in the artefacts found in King Tut’s tomb?
Tutankhamun was an extremely wealthy pharaoh. When he died, he was buried with numerous artefacts like pieces of jewellery such as precious collars, inlaid necklaces and bracelets, rings, amulets etc. Even the inner coffin and mask were made of pure gold. It was believed that the eternal glitter and brilliance of the precious gold will ensure the rising again of King Tut.

Question 10.
Why did the artefacts cause a sensation at the time of discovery?
The artefacts discovered cause a sensation at the time of discovery because they were all made of pure gold. Their brilliance was eternal and never fading. This eternal brilliance of the artefacts was meant to guarantee the king’s resurrection.

Question 11.
Who found King Tut’s mummy? What problems did he face?
Howard Carter, a British archaeologist, was the first person to discover the tomb of King Tut. He found it in 1922 after years of futile searching.

Carter found that the ritual resins had hardened over the years, cementing the mummy of King Tut to the bottom of the solid gold coffin so that it could not be removed for analysis.

So he set the mummy in blazing sunshine to loosen the resins. But nothing happened. Howard Carter then had to chisel away the hardened material, ft damaged the mummy because every major joint of it was broken to get it out.

Question 12.
Howard Carter ran into trouble when he finally reached the mummy. Why?
When Howard Carter finally reached the mummy he ran into trouble, because he could not raise the mummy out of the coffin. The ritual resins had hardened, cementing King Tut’s body to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. No amount of force could pull it out.

Question 13.
What evidence was there to prove that the burial of King Tut took place in March or April?
After months of carefully recording the pharaoh’s funerary treasures, Howard Carter began investigating the three nested coffins. On opening the first coffin, he found a shroud adorned with garlands of willow and olive leaves, wild celery, lotus petals and cornflowers’.

It was a faded evidence of a burial that took place in March or April because these plants would be available in Egypt during this period of the year.

Question 14.
What efforts did Howard Carter make to separate King Tut’s mummy from its solid gold bottom?
When Howard Carter discovered King Tut’s tomb and his mummy in 1922, he found that the ritual resins had hardened and thus cemented the mummy to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. So he put the mummy in the blazing sunshine to loosen the resins.

But nothing melted. There was only one alternative.
The resins had to be chiselled away before removing the King Tut’s remains.

Question 15.
How did Howard Carter detach the mummy?
First Howard Carter tried to loosen the resins with the heat of the sun. For several hours, he put the mummy outside in blazing sunshine that heated it to 149 degrees Fahrenheit, but in vain. Then he decided to chisel it out from beneath the limbs and trunk because there was no other way of raising the King Tut’s remains.

Question 16.
What justification did Howard Carter give in his defence? Do you agree with him?
The ritual resins had hardened, cementing King Tut’s mummy to the bottom of the solid gold coffin. No amount of force could budge it. Howard Carter feared that thieves would destroy the mummy for the gold. So, he finally decided to chisel out the mummy. But what Howard Carter did cannot be justified. He destroyed the natural state of the mummy. He had no right to do such a thing.

Question 17.
List some adornments on King Tut’s body.
Why had the adornments been buried along with the body?
The mummy of King Tut was lavished with glittering ornaments. It was decorated with precious collars, inlaid necklaces, rings, bracelets, amulets and a ceremonial apron.

There were also sandals, sheaths for his fingers and toes and the inner coffin and mask. All of them were of pure gold. The royal family believed that they could take their riches with them to the afterlife and were thus buried with their adornments.

Question 18.
What were the things King Tut was buried with?
Howard Carter, a British archaeologist, discovered King Tut’s tomb. He worked for months and carefully recorded Tut’s treasures. He found that many objects were placed along with King Tut’s dead body in his tomb. Wonderful artefacts in gold were placed there. King Tut was also buried with everyday things such as board games, a bronze razor, linen garments and boxes of food and wine.

Question 19.
What startling fact was revealed by a professor of anatomy about King Tut?
In 1968, more than 40 years after Howard Carter’s discovery of King Tut’s tomb, a professor of anatomy X-rayed King Tut’s mummy. The professor revealed an astonishing fact that beneath the resin that layered his chest, his breast-bone and front ribs were missing.

Question 20.
Which questions still linger about King Tut?
The two biggest questions that still linger about King Tut are how he died and how old he was at the time of his death. He was the last ruler of his dynasty and his funeral was the end of the dynasty. However, the particulars of his passing away and its aftermath are still unclear.

Question 21.
King Tut’s demise was a big event, even by royal standards. Why?
King Tut’s demise was a big event, even by royal standards because he was the last ruler in his dynasty. This funeral was the end of a dynasty that ruled Egypt for centuries. Moreover, he died unexpectedly at a very young age.

Question 22.
Who was the last ruler of the powerful dynasty? Describe in brief.
King Tut was the last ruler of the powerful dynasty which ruled over Egypt for centuries. He ruled over his kingdom for about 9 years. Young Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun and restored the old customs. He died unexpectedly about 3300 years ago, which gave rise to many speculations about his cause of death at a young age.

Question 23.
Describe King Tut and his family.
King Tut was the last ruler of a powerful family that ruled Egypt for centuries. He was quite young when he sat on the throne. He ruled for about 9 years.

King Tut died unexpectedly in his early youth which gave rise to many doubts and speculations. He was laid to rest laden with his possessions and forgotten.

Amenhotep III, King Tut’s father or grandfather, ruled for almost 40 years. His son Amenhotep IV succeeded him and changed his name to Akhenaten, which meant ‘servant of the Aten’. He shifted his religious capital from the old city of Thebes to Akhetaten. He further shocked the country by attacking Amun, a major God. Then a mysterious ruler Smenkhkare ruled briefly. After him, Tutankhaten took the throne.

Question 24.
What changes did King Tut bring out during his reign?
King Tut was named Tutankhaten at the time of his birth. On succeeding his father to the Egyptian throne after Akhenaten, King Tut brought about a restoration of the old customs. First he changed his name to Tutankhamun in reverence of the old god Amun. Then he oversaw the restoration and reopening of old temples, shrines and idols.

Question 25.
Why did King Tut’s mummy have to undergo a CT scan?
King Tut’s mummy had earned worldwide fame for the riches it was buried with. Moreover, there arose a great controversy regarding the manner of his death and his age at the time of death. As a result, King Tut’s body was CT. scanned to examine the medical mysteries about his life and death.

Question 26.
How was King Tut’s body carried to the CT scanner?
On the night of the scan, workmen carried King Tut’s body from the tomb in his coffin. Like pallbearers they climbed a ramp and a flight of stairs from the burial chamber into the swirling sand outside. Then they rose on a hydraulic lift into the trailer that held the scanner.

Question 27.
“Curse of the pharaoh”, joked a guard nervously. What is the curse and why did the guard say so?
The curse of the pharaoh states that death or misfortune would fall upon those who disturbed him. When King Tut’s mummy was carried to be scanned, one of the fans of the CT scan machine stopped working due to sand getting into it. That is why the guard jokingly remarked that it was the curse of the pharaoh.

Question 28.
What snag did the million dollar scanner develop? How was the defect corrected?
The scanner had stopped working because sand had got into a cooler fan in it. The fan was replaced with a spare one which had been brought and the work was finished using the substitute fan. Thus the defect was set right and the scanning of King Tut’s mummy was continued.

Question 29.
Why was Zahi Hawass worried? How did he get rid of his worry?
Zahi Hawass was Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities in 2005. King Tut’s mummy was already in a bad condition after what Howard Carter did to it. Zahi Hawass was scared of inflicting more damage to it when the first ever CT scan of King Tut’s mummy for an accurate forensic reconstruction was arranged. When everything went as planned, he heaved a sigh of relief.

Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Long Questions and Answers (6 Marks)

Question 1.
In 1922, King Tut’s tomb was discovered.
Much of the treasure buried in the tomb had already been stolen. Materialistic attitude of man does not allow even the dead to sleep in peace. Will there be any end to this attitude?
Man can go to any extent for a handful of gold. In King Tut’s time, the royals were fabulously wealthy and they believed that they could take their riches with them. King Tut’s mummy was thus buried with a lot of gold and other items of daily use in the belief that the dead pharaoh would need those things in the afterlife. It was a matter of faith.

When King Tut’s tomb was discovered, much of the treasure had already been looted. Ethics and morals are not understood by thieves. Their goal in life is to acquire as much wealth as possible by any means. This materialistic attitude will never end will increase day by day.

Question 2.
After reading the chapter you realise that the funerary practice of the Egyptians was somewhat exaggerated as they buried their kings with all kinds of ornaments and items of daily use. Though traditions and rituals must be respected, some superstitious beliefs should be discarded. Discuss.
Any society can progress only if it does not let go of its roots. Many of us ridicule certain traditions, make fun of rituals and mock at funerary practices. But all these old practices have certain traditional values attached to them.

There is a belief, not only in India but other countries also, that death is only an end to the physical being. The soul has to travel further.

Human beings are known for their discretionary power. Traditions, rituals and funerary practices should be given due respect, but we should understand that practices which carry no meaning should be discarded. Thus, a dead body should be cremated with honour, but burying it with everyday things has no relevance.

Traditions and rituals make us who we are. They give us identity. But being a better society is an ongoing process. Some very horrible rituals have already been discarded. Hence, we should learn to respect traditions and rituals, not follow them blindly.

Question 3.
What do you understand by the statement, “Archaeology has changed substantially ……….” Discuss with reference to the chapter ‘Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues.’ What do you learn from modern archaeology?
During the last few decades, archaeology has undergone a revolutionary change. It is not what it used to be. It has transformed with the times. Earlier it was more about gilded treasures and forgotten fortunes. But now, the focus is not on the treasure. Today, archaeology focuses on the fascinating details of peoples’ lives and the mysteries behind their deaths. Now archaeologists are more interested in other relevant details, like in the case of King Tut’s mummy. Archaeologists are more interested to know about the facts of his life – how he lived and how he died.

Also, archaeology naro uses more sophisticated tools like CT scan machines. It also employs forensic methods and X-ray technology.
Such scientific implements were not available to the archaeologists of earlier years. Hence, they were not able to discover most of the facts about their searches.

Question 4.
We have an abundance of precious monuments in our country. The unfortunate fact is that many are defaced and are falling to pieces due to vandalism and neglect. As a student, what steps would you take to preserve our national wealth?
India has an extraordinarily, vast and diverse pool of cultural heritage and ancient monuments which remind us of the golden historic era of over a thousand years. They carry a special and a well deserved respect in the eyes of Indians. However, it is unfortunate that most of these monuments are damaged and are falling to pieces due to thieves and neglect.

As students, we should try to preserve out national wealth. We should prevent others from scribbling on walls. Regular cleanliness drives should be carried out in order to maintain historical monuments. As students, we can also volunteer by being a part of the ‘Adopt a Heritage’ initiative. Moreover, we should help in spreading awareness about these monuments and their importance. In today’s competitive world, we have to preserve the monuments and showcase them to the next generation as the achievements of our ancestors.


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