NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 11 The Proposal are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English. Here we have given NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English First Flight Chapter 11 The Proposal.
|Subject||English First Flight|
|Chapter Name||The Proposal|
BEFORE YOU READ
1. The word ‘proposal’ has several meanings. Can you guess what sort of proposal the play is about ?
(i) a suggestion, plan or scheme for doing something
(ii) an offer for a possible plan or action
(iii) the act of asking someone’s hand in marriage
A Russian Wedding
Do you know anything about a Russian marriage ceremony ? Read this article about a Russian wedding. ………………..
(iii) the act of asking someone’s hand in marriage.
2. Do you think Indian and Russian weddings have any customs in common ? With the help of a partner, fill in the table below.
Wedding Ceremonies in Russia and India
|Customs similar to Indian ones||Customs different from Indian ones|
‘The Proposal’ (originally titled ‘A Marriage Proposal’) is a one act play, a farce, by the Russian short story writer and dramatist Anton Chekov.
Indian and Russian weddings have many customs in common. The information showing it is given below :
|Customs similar to Indian ones||Customs different from Indian ones|
1. wedding procession
2. groom coming to bride’s house to fetch her
5. ‘stealing’ of the shoe
6. grooms paying
1. making posters, writing speeches, organising contests
2. fight involving this
3. climbing stairs and answering questions etc,
4. city tour
5. ceremonial toasting
6. kissing the bride
7. ‘stealing’ of the bride
THINKING ABOUT THE PLAY
What does Chubukov at first suspect that Lomov has come for ? Is he sincere when he later says “And I’ve always loved you, my angel, as if you were my own son” ? Find reasons for your answer from the play.
Why does Chubukov suspect Lomov when he comes to his house ? (CBSE 2016)
Chubukov at first suspects that Lomov has come to borrow money. He is not sincere in saying this. After some moments, Chubukov starts fighting with Lomov over petty matters. In fact, he sides with his daughter in fighting with Lomov. He even abuses Lomov. He calls him bad names. This shows his insincerity in saying this flattering sentence.
Chubukov says of Natalya : “… as if she won’t consent ! She’s in love; egad, she’s like a lovesick cat…” Would you agree ? Find reasons for your answer.
Yes, Natalya is in love. This is clear in her behaviour when she knows that Lomov came to propose to her. When she knows it, she starts weeping. She calls her father to bring him back at once. He has gone out after the quarrel. She becomes hysteric.
(i) Find all the words and expressions in the play that the characters use to speak about each other, and the accusations and insults they hurl at each other. (For example, Lomov in the end calls Chubukov an intriguer ; but earlier, Chubukov has himself called Lomov a “malicious, doublefaced intriguer.” Again, Lomov begins by describing Natalya as “an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated.”)
(ii) Then think of five adjectives or adjectival expressions of your own to describe each character in the play.
(iii) Can you now imagine what these characters will quarrel about next ?
(i) Natalya calls Lomov ‘rascal’, ‘The monster’.
Chubukov calls him ‘The villain ! The scarecrow !’ ‘that blind hen’, ‘turnip-ghost’, ‘The stuffed sausage’ ‘The wizen-faced frump’, ‘malicious, double-faced intriguer’, ‘Pup’, ‘Old rat’, ‘Jesuit’, ‘Milksop’, ‘Fool’.
Chubukov calls Lomov’s father as ‘a guzzling gambler’.
Lomov calls Chubukov ‘Intriguer’, Natalya’s mother as ‘hump-backed’, ‘backbiters’ etc.
Chubukov calls Lomov as ‘my precious’.
Lomov calls Natalya as ‘an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking , well-educated’.
(ii) Lomov : assertive, weak-hearted, diffident, stupid, idiotic, ‘cultured’ in dress etc.
Natalya : quarrelsome, foolish, idiotic, unwise, immature, mean
Chubukov : mean, assertive, low-minded, abusive, quarrelsome, insensible
(iii) They will fight on very petty matters.
I. THINKING ABOUT LANGUAGE
This play has been translated into English from the Russian original. Are there any expressions or ways of speaking that strike you as more Russian than English ? For example, would an adult man be addressed by an older man as my darling or my treasure in an English play ?
Read through the play carefully, and find expressions that you think are not used in contemporary English, and contrast these with idiomatic modern English expressions that also occur in the play.
Expressions or ways of speaking that strike as more Russian than English :
Spit it out, she’s like a lovesick cat, honoured Natalya Stepanovna, You pettifogger, malicious, doublefaced intriguer, rascal, The villain’! The scarecrow ! The stuffed sausage ! The wizen-faced frump! Pup ! And you’re under the slipper of your house-keeper !
She’s willing, kiss and be damned to you.
These ‘abuses’ are not used in contemporary English. These expressions of abuse are contrasted with the ones like :
‘pumpkin’; ‘buffoon’, ‘ostrich’, ‘pig’, ‘swine’, ‘fool’, ‘dog’ Villain’, ‘scoundrel’, ‘owl’, etc.
Look up the following words in a dictionary and find out how to pronounce them. Pay attention to how many syllables there are in each word, and find out which syllable is stressed, or said more forcefully.
Look up the following phrases in a dictionary to find out their meaning, and then use each in a sentence of your own.
II. Reported Speech
Here are some pairs of sentences in direct and reported speech. Read them carefully, and do the task that follows :
1. (i) Lomov : Honoured Stepan Stepanovitch, do you think I may count on her consent ? (Direct Speech)
(ii) Lomov asked Stepan Stepanovitch respectfully if he thought he might count on her consent. (Reported Speech)
2. (i) Lomov : I’m getting a noise in my ears from excitement. (Direct Speech)
(ii) Lomov said that he was getting a noise in his ears from excitement. (Reported Speech)
3. (i) Natalya : Why haven’t you been here for such a long time ? (Direct Speech)
(ii) Natalya Stepanovna asked why he hadn’t been there for such a long time. (Reported Speech)
4. (i) Chubukov : What’s the matter ? (Direct Speech)
(ii) Chubukov asked him what the matter was. (Reported Speech)
5. (i) Natalya : My mowers will be there this very day ! (Direct Speech)
(ii) Natalya Stepanovna declared that her mowers would be there that very day. (Reported Speech)
You must have noticed that when we report someone’s exact words, we have to make some changes in the sentence structure. In the following sentences fill in the blanks to list the changes that have occurred in the above pairs of sentences. One has been done for you.
1. To report a question, we use the reporting verb asked (as in Sentence Set I).
2. To report a statement, we use the reporting verb _______
3. The adverb of place here changes to _______
4. When the verb in direct speech is in the present tense, the verb in reported speech is in the _______ tense (as in Sentence Set 3).
5. If the verb in direct speech is in the present continuous tense, the verb in reported speech changes to _______ tense. For example, _______ changes to was getting.
6. When the sentence in direct speech contains a word denoting respect, we add the adverb _______ in the reporting clause (as in Sentence Set 1).
7. The pronouns I, me, our and mine, which are used in the first person in direct speech, change according to the subject or object of the reporting verb such as _______ , _______ , _______ or _______ in reported speech.
5. past continuous ……… is getting
7. he, him, their or his
III. Here is an excerpt from an article from the Times of India dated 27 August, 2006. Rewrite it, changing the sentences in direct speech into reported speech. Leave the other sentences unchanged.
“Why do you want to know my age ? If people know I am so old, I won’t get work !” laughs 90-year-old A.K. Hangal, one of Hindi cinema’s most famous character actors. For his age, he is rather energetic. “What’s the secret ?” we ask. “My intake of everything is in small quantities. And I walk a lot”, he replies. “I joined the industry when people retire. I was in my 40s. So I don’t miss being called a star. I am still respected and given work, when actors of my age are living in poverty and without work. I don’t have any complaints,” he says, adding, “but yes, I have always been underpaid.” Recipient of the Padma Bhushan, Hangal never hankered after money or materialistic gains. “No doubt I am content today, but money is important. I was a fool ndt to understand the value of money earlier,” he regrets.
90-year-old A.K. Hangal, one of Hindi cinema’s most famous character actors laughs asking why they want to know his age. For his age, he is rather energetic. They ask him what is the secret. He replies that it is his intake of everything in small quantities and he walks a lot. He further states that he joined the industry when people retire. He had been in his 40s. So he doesn’t miss being called a star. He is still respected and given work when actors of his age are living in poverty and without work. He doesn’t have any complaints, he says adding that he has always been underpaid. Recipient of the Padma Bhushan, Hangal had never hankered after money or materialistic gains. He regrets that no doubt he is content today but money is important. He had been a fool not to understand the value of money earlier.
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